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The United Kingdom’s quantitative easing policy: design, operation and impact

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  • Joyce, Michael

    ()
    (Bank of England)

  • Tong, Matthew

    ()
    (Bank of England)

  • Woods, Robert

    ()
    (Bank of England)

Abstract

In response to the intensification of the financial crisis in Autumn 2008, the Bank of England, in common with other central banks, loosened monetary policy using both conventional and unconventional policy measures. In the United Kingdom, the principal element of these unconventional measures was the policy of asset purchases financed by central bank money, so-called quantitative easing (QE). Over the period March 2009 to January 2010, £200 billion of assets were purchased, overwhelmingly made up of government securities, representing around 14% of annual GDP. This article reviews the motivation for these central bank asset purchases and describes how they were implemented. It goes on to review a range of evidence for the impact of the asset purchases made to date, both on financial markets and more widely on the economy. While there is considerable uncertainty about the magnitudes, the evidence suggests that QE asset purchases have had economically significant effects.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Bank of England in its journal Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin.

Volume (Year): 51 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 200-212

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Handle: RePEc:boe:qbullt:0055

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References

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  1. Michael A. S. Joyce & Ana Lasaosa & Ibrahim Stevens & Matthew Tong, 2011. "The Financial Market Impact of Quantitative Easing in the United Kingdom," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 7(3), pages 113-161, September.
  2. Hess Chung & Jean-Philippe Laforte & David Reifschneider & John C. Williams, 2011. "Have we underestimated the likelihood and severity of zero lower bound events?," Working Paper Series 2011-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  3. Michele Lenza & Huw Pill & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2010. "Monetary policy in exceptional times," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 25, pages 295-339, 04.
  4. Joseph Gagnon & Matthew Raskin & Julie Remache & Brian Sack, 2010. "Large-scale asset purchases by the Federal Reserve: did they work?," Staff Reports 441, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  5. Claudio Borio & Piti Disyatat, 2010. "Unconventional Monetary Policies: An Appraisal," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 78(s1), pages 53-89, 09.
  6. Harrison, Richard, 2012. "Asset purchase policy at the effective lower bound for interest rates," Bank of England working papers 444, Bank of England.
  7. Inkinen, Mika & Stringa, Marco & Voutsinou, Kyriaki, 2010. "Interpreting equity price movements since the start of the financial crisis," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 50(1), pages 24-33.
  8. George Kapetanios & Haroon Mumtaz & Ibrahim Stevens & Konstantinos Theodoridis, 2012. "Assessing the Economy‐wide Effects of Quantitative Easing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(564), pages F316-F347, November.
  9. Bridges, Jonathan & Rossiter, Neil & Thomas, Ryland, 2011. "Understanding the recent weakness in broad money growth," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 51(1), pages 22-35.
  10. Joyce, Michael A.S. & Lildholdt, Peter & Sorensen, Steffen, 2010. "Extracting inflation expectations and inflation risk premia from the term structure: A joint model of the UK nominal and real yield curves," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 281-294, February.
  11. Gauti B. Eggertsson & Michael Woodford, 2003. "The Zero Bound on Interest Rates and Optimal Monetary Policy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(1), pages 139-235.
  12. Ben S. Bernanke & Vincent R. Reinhart, 2004. "Conducting Monetary Policy at Very Low Short-Term Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 85-90, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Chris Florakis & Gianluigi Giorgioni & Alexandros Kostakis & Costas Milas, 2012. "The Impact of Stock Market Illiquidity on Real UK GDP Growth," Working Paper Series 65_12, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  2. David Cobham & Yue Kang, 2012. "Financial Crisis And Quantitative Easing: Can Broad Money Tell Us Anything?," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 80, pages 54-76, 09.
  3. Timothy Sharpe & Martin Watts, 2013. "Unconventional Monetary Policy in the UK: A Modern Money Critique," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 18(2), pages 41-64, September.
  4. Jackson, Christopher & Sim , Mathew, 2013. "Recent developments in the sterling overnight money market," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(3), pages 223-233.
  5. Barnett, Alina & Thomas, Ryland, 2013. "Has weak lending and activity in the United Kingdom been driven by credit supply shocks?," Bank of England working papers 482, Bank of England.
  6. Churm, Rohan & Radia, Amar & Leake, Jeremy & Srinivasan, Sylaja & Whisker, Rishard, 2012. "The Funding for Lending Scheme," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 52(4), pages 306-320.
  7. Farrant, Katie & Inkinen, Mika & Rutkowska, Magda & Theodoridis, Konstantinos, 2013. "What can company data tell us about financing and investment decisions?," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(4), pages 361-370.
  8. Butt, Nicholas & Domit, Silvia & McLeay, Michael & Thomas, Ryland & Kirkham, Lewis, 2012. "What can the money data tell us about the impact of QE?," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 52(4), pages 321-331.
  9. McLaren, Nick & Smith, Tom, 2013. "The profile of cash transfers between the Asset Purchase Facility and Her Majesty’s Treasury," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(1), pages 29-37.
  10. Adam S. Posen, 2012. "Commentary: methods of policy accommodation at the interest-rate lower bound," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 289-302.
  11. McLeay, Michael & Radia, Amar & Thomas, Ryland, 2014. "Money creation in the modern economy," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 54(1), pages 14-27.
  12. Hills, Robert & Hoggarth, Glenn, 2013. "Cross-border bank credit and global financial stability," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(2), pages 126-136.
  13. Hackworth, Christopher & Radia, Amar & Roberts, Nyssa, 2013. "Understanding the MPC’s forecast performance since mid-2010," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 53(4), pages 336-350.

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