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The Elderly and Old Age Support in Rural China : Challenges and Prospects

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Author Info

  • Fang Cai
  • John Giles
  • Philip O'Keefe
  • Dewen Wang

Abstract

Although average incomes in China have risen dramatically since the 1980s, concerns are increasing that the rural elderly have not benefited from growth to the same extent as younger people and the urban elderly. Concerns about welfare of the rural elderly combine spatial and demographic issues. Large gaps exist between conditions in coastal and interior regions and between conditions in urban and rural areas of the country. In addition to differences in income by geography, considerable differences exist across demographic groups in the level of coverage by safety nets, in the benefits received through the social welfare system, and in the risks of falling into poverty. This book aims to do two things: first, it provides detailed empirical analysis of the welfare and living conditions of the rural elderly since the early 1990s in the context of large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and second, it explores the evolution of the rural pension system in China over the past two decades and raises a number of issues on its current implementation and future directions. Although the two sections of the book are distinct in analytical terms, they are closely linked in policy terms: the first section demonstrates in several ways a rationale for greater public intervention in the welfare of the rural elderly, and the second documents the response of policy to date and options to consider for deepening the coverage and effects of the rural pension system over the longer term.

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File URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/2249/675220PUB0EPI0067882B09780821386859.pdf?sequence=1
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Bibliographic Info

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This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 2249 and published in 2012.

ISBN: 978-0-8213-8685-9
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:2249

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Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
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Web page: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org
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Related research

Keywords: Social Protections and Labor - Pensions & Retirement Systems Health; Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Health; Nutrition and Population;

References

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  1. Robert Holzmann & Edward Palmer, 2006. "Pension Reform : Issues and Prospects for Non-Financial Defined Contribution (NDC) Schemes," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6983, October.
  2. Eric M. Engen & William G. Gale, 2000. "The Effects of 401(k) Plans on Household Wealth: Differences Across Earnings Groups," NBER Working Papers 8032, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 2007. "China's (uneven) progress against poverty," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 1-42, January.
  4. Kalanidhi Subbarao, 2005. "Aging and Poverty in Africa and the Role of Social Pensions," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11785, The World Bank.
  5. Robert Holzmann & David A. Robalino & Noriyuki Takayama, 2009. "Closing the Coverage Gap : The Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2651, October.
  6. Palacios, Robert & Sluchynsky, Oleksiy, 2006. "Social pensions Part I : their role in the overall pension system," Social Protection Discussion Papers 36237, The World Bank.
  7. Kakwani, Nanak & Subbarao, Kalanidhi, 2005. "Aging and poverty in Africa and the role of social pensions," Social Protection Discussion Papers 32752, The World Bank.
  8. Kwang-Yeol Yoo & Alain de Serres, 2004. "Tax Treatment of Private Pension Savings in OECD Countries and the Net Tax Cost Per Unit of Contribution to Tax-Favoured Schemes," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 406, OECD Publishing.
  9. Sudhir Rajkumar & Mark C. Dorfman, 2011. "Governance and Investment of Public Pension Assets : Practitioners' Perspectives," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2553, October.
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