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Is cooperation the answer? Canadian environmental enforcement in comparative context

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  • Kathryn Harrison

    (Assistant Professor at the University of British Columbia)

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    Abstract

    In recent years, a number of authors have been critical of the adversarial U.S. “regulatory style,” and have expressed interest in more cooperative regulatory approaches common in Western Europe. They have argued that the inflexible, deterrence-based approach that has characterized enforcement of U.S. health, safety, and environmental laws is not only inefficient in treating minor and significant violations equally, but counterproductive in fostering antagonistic relationships between regulators and the regulated. This article examines the effectiveness of the cooperative Canadian approach to enforcement of environmental regulations, using the pulp and paper industry as a case study. The resulting levels of compliance are compared with rates of compliance in the United States for the same industry. Significantly lower rates of compliance in Canada cast doubt on the growing consensus in favor of cooperative regulatory approaches.

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.2307/3325151
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.

    Volume (Year): 14 (1995)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 221-244

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    Handle: RePEc:wly:jpamgt:v:14:y:1995:i:2:p:221-244

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    Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/34787/home

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    1. Magat, Wesley A & Viscusi, W Kip, 1990. "Effectiveness of the EPA's Regulatory Enforcement: The Case of Industrial Effluent Standards," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 331-60, October.
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    Cited by:
    1. Anderson, C. Leigh & Kagan, Robert A., 2000. "Adversarial legalism and transaction costs:: The industrial-flight hypothesis revisited," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-19, March.
    2. Holstein, Fredrik & Gren, Ing-Marie, 2013. "Violation of environmental regulations in Sweden: Economic motives, environmental attitudes, and social capital," Working Paper Series 2013:3, Department Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    3. Blackman, Allen & Harrington, Winston, 1999. "The Use of Economic Incentives in Developing Countries: Lessons from International Experience with Industrial Air Pollution," Discussion Papers dp-99-39, Resources For the Future.
    4. Kathryn Harrison & George Hoberg, 1996. "In Defence of Regulation: A Rejoinder to Benoît Laplante," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 22(2), pages 180-183, June.
    5. Wayne B. Gray & Jay P. Shimshack, 2011. "The Effectiveness of Environmental Monitoring and Enforcement: A Review of the Empirical Evidence," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 3-24, Winter.
    6. Rothenberg, Sandra, 2007. "Environmental managers as institutional entrepreneurs: The influence of institutional and technical pressures on waste management," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(7), pages 749-757, July.

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