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Examining The Role of Urban Form In Shaping People’s Accessibility to Opportunities: An Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

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  • Scott, Darren M.

    ()
    (McMaster University)

  • Horner, Mark W.

    (Florida State University)

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    Abstract

    This study employs a comprehensive suite of accessibility indices to investigate whether American cities are designed in such a way that the locations of goods, services, and other opportunities favor certain socio-economic groups over others. In so doing, the study’s findings contribute to pressing policy issues such as social exclusion. Seven counties of the Louisville, KY-IN MSA serve as the study area for the investigation. Data are derived from three sources: a geocoded travel diary survey that was conducted in the study area in 2000, a geocoded database of all urban opportunities in the study area, and a database containing shortest path travel times between the locations of households and urban opportunities. Accessibility indices (i.e., gravity, cumulative opportunity, and proximity) are computed for households found in the trip diary survey. Furthermore, these indices are defined for 34 types of opportunities: four aggregate types (i.e., retail, service, leisure, and religious) and 30 disaggregate types representing the 10 most popular destinations for trips for each of the first three aggregate types. Non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests are used to compare the accessibilities of five socio-economic groups (i.e., individuals residing in rural communities, individuals residing in single-person and single-parent households, individuals residing in low-income households, women, and the elderly) to their counterparts. Except for individuals residing in rural areas, our findings indicate that groups, which conventional wisdom would suggest are at risk of social exclusion, are not disadvantaged in terms of accessibility.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota in its journal The Journal of Tranport and Land Use.

    Volume (Year): 1 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 89-119

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    Handle: RePEc:ris:jtralu:0011

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    Web page: http://www.jtlu.org/index.php/jtlu
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    Related research

    Keywords: Accessibility; Urban Structure; Activities; Exclusion;

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    Cited by:
    1. Páez, Antonio & Moniruzzaman, Md. & Bourbonnais, Pierre-Leo & Morency, Catherine, 2013. "Developing a web-based accessibility calculator prototype for the Greater Montreal Area," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 103-115.
    2. Niedzielski, Michael A. & Horner, Mark W. & Xiao, Ningchuan, 2013. "Analyzing scale independence in jobs-housing and commute efficiency metrics," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 129-143.
    3. Kang, Hejun & Scott, Darren M., 2010. "Exploring day-to-day variability in time use for household members," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(8), pages 609-619, October.
    4. Matthew Roorda & Antonio Páez & Catherine Morency & Ruben Mercado & Steven Farber, 2010. "Trip generation of vulnerable populations in three Canadian cities: a spatial ordered probit approach," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 525-548, May.

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