The Personal City: The Experiential, Cognitive Nature of Travel and Activity and Implications for Accessibility
AbstractTransportation planning research addresses accessibility from diverse approaches, focusing varyingly on the usability of the transportation system as a whole, a particular mode, the pattern of land uses, or the wherewithal of individuals and communities to make use of those systems. One aspect of accessibility that has received relatively little attention from planners is its cognitive, experiential aspect. Individualsâ€™ activity and travel choices require not just money and time but also information about opportunities in the city. This component of an individualâ€™s accessibility is highly personal but also dependent on the terrain of land uses and transportation options shaped by planners and policymakers. I seek to extend current accessibility research, addressing shortcomings in how the literature deals with individual experience of the city and knowledge. Through a series of empirical analyses of activity patterns and cognitive maps of theLos Angeles region, I explore the factors that shape individual accessibility. The first analysis investigates the spatial nature of personal cities, using the activity spaces of respondents to explore the types of opportunities that different populations within a city can access. The second demonstrates the differences â€“ depending on mode of travel â€“ among individualsâ€™ perceptions of the city, even when location is held constant. The third analysis continues an exploration of the personal city by considering its fundamental components. Overall, the analyses support the relevance of the personal city framework to accessibility research, highlighting in particular that planning interventions are filtered through experiential and cognitive processes. The findings highlight that the accessibility impacts of transportation and land use patterns are felt not just in the instantaneous calculations of a microeconomic choice framework, but also in the long-term, developmental processes of cognition and experience. For urban planners, the implications of this research include evidence of how the built environment can effectively reduce travel while maintaining accessibility and how different transportation modes afford varying levels of functional accessibility. Overall, I find that experience, information, and learning are elements of urban daily life traditionally neglected by planners but with potential to increase opportunity and accessibility for diverse urban populations.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt7014d9cg.
Date of creation: 01 Aug 2013
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 109 McLaughlin Hall, Mail Code 1720, Berkeley, CA 94720-1720
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/uctc/
More information through EDIRC
Social and Behavioral Sciences; urban planning; travel choice; accessibility;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-08-31 (All new papers)
- NEP-CBE-2013-08-31 (Cognitive & Behavioural Economics)
- NEP-TRE-2013-08-31 (Transport Economics)
- NEP-TUR-2013-08-31 (Tourism Economics)
- NEP-URE-2013-08-31 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- S L Handy & D A Niemeier, 1997. "Measuring accessibility: an exploration of issues and alternatives," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 29(7), pages 1175-1194, July.
- Alex Anas & Richard Arnott & Kenneth A. Small, 1998.
"Urban Spatial Structure,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 1426-1464, September.
- Richard Arnott & Alex Anas & Kenneth Small, 1997. "Urban Spatial Structure," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 388., Boston College Department of Economics.
- Anas, Alex & Arnott, Richard & Small, Kenneth A., 1997. "Urban Spatial Structure," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt835049q3, University of California Transportation Center.
- Chorus, Caspar G. & Arentze, Theo A. & Timmermans, Harry J.P., 2008. "A Random Regret-Minimization model of travel choice," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 1-18, January.
- Bayarma Alexander & Christa Hubers & Tim Schwanen & Martin Dijst & Dick Ettema, 2011. "Anything, anywhere, anytime? Developing indicators to assess the spatial and temporal fragmentation of activities," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 38(4), pages 678-705, July.
- Brueckner, Jan K. & Thisse, Jacques-Francois & Zenou, Yves, 1999.
"Why is central Paris rich and downtown Detroit poor?: An amenity-based theory,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 91-107, January.
- Brueckner, J.K. & Thisse, J.-F. & Zenou, Y., 1996. "Why is central Paris rich and downtown Detroit poor ? An amenity-based theory," CORE Discussion Papers 1996065, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Susan Handy & Kelly Clifton, 2001. "Local shopping as a strategy for reducing automobile travel," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 317-346, November.
- David Levinson, 1998. "Accessibility and the Journey to Work," Working Papers 199802, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
- Richard Arnott & Andre de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 1996.
"Information and Time-of-Usage Decisions in the Bottleneck Model with Stochastic Capacity and Demand,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
355., Boston College Department of Economics.
- Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1999. "Information and time-of-usage decisions in the bottleneck model with stochastic capacity and demand," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 525-548, March.
- R. Arnott & A. de Palma & R. Lindsey, 1997. "Information and time-of-usage decisions in the bottleneck model with stochastic capacity and demand," THEMA Working Papers 97-13, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
- John M. Quigley, 1998. "Urban Diversity and Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 127-138, Spring.
- Harry J. Holzer, .
"Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy,"
Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers
1162-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
- Holzer, Harry J. & Reaser, Jess, 2000. "Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 365-387, November.
- Golledge, Reginald G & Garling, Tommy, 2001. "Spatial Behavior in Transportation Modeling and Planning," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt68z571sc, University of California Transportation Center.
- Golledge, Reginald G., 1995. "Path Selection and Route Preference in Human Navigation: A Progress Report," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9jn5r27v, University of California Transportation Center.
- McFadden, Daniel, 2007. "The behavioral science of transportation," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 269-274, July.
- Martin Dijst & Velibor Vidakovic, 2000. "Travel time ratio: the key factor of spatial reach," Transportation, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 179-199, May.
- Stoll, Michael A., 1999. "Spatial Job Search, Spatial Mismatch, and the Employment and Wages of Racial and Ethnic Groups in Los Angeles," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 129-155, July.
- Schönfelder, Stefan & Axhausen, Kay W., 2003. "Activity spaces: measures of social exclusion?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 273-286, October.
- Jess Gaspar & Edward L. Glaeser, 1996.
"Information Technology and the Future of Cities,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1756, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Golledge, Reinald G. & Garling, Tommy, 2001. "Spatial Behavior in Transportation Modeling and Planning," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt94f957b8, University of California Transportation Center.
- Batley, Richard, 2007. "Marginal valuations of travel time and scheduling, and the reliability premium," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 387-408, July.
- Andrew Mondschein & Evelyn Blumenberg & Brian Taylor, 2010. "Accessibility and Cognition: The Effect of Transport Mode on Spatial Knowledge," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 47(4), pages 845-866, April.
- Arnold van Exel, Nicolaas Jacob & Rietveld, Piet, 2010. "Perceptions of public transport travel time and their effect on choice-sets among car drivers," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 2(3), pages 75-86.
- Kim, Sungyop & Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F. & Todd Hennessy, J., 2007. "Analysis of light rail rider travel behavior: Impacts of individual, built environment, and crime characteristics on transit access," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 511-522, July.
- Jared Hewko & Karen E Smoyer-Tomic & M John Hodgson, 2002. "Measuring neighbourhood spatial accessibility to urban amenities: does aggregation error matter?," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 34(7), pages 1185-1206, July.
- Allen, W. Bruce & Liu, Dong & Singer, Scott, 1993. "Accesibility measures of U.S. metropolitan areas," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 439-449, December.
- Aguiléra, Anne & Guillot, Caroline & Rallet, Alain, 2012. "Mobile ICTs and physical mobility: Review and research agenda," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 664-672.
- Handy, Susan L., 1992. "Regional Versus Local Accessibility: Neo-Traditional Development and Its Implications for Non-work Travel," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt7gs0p1nc, University of California Transportation Center.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.