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L’immigration et les revenus relatifs des femmes, des jeunes et des personnes peu scolarisées au Canada

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  • Grenier, Gilles

    (Département de science économique, Université d’Ottawa)

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of immigration on the market of some disadvantaged groups of Canadian workers, i.e., women, younger workers, and workers with low levels of schooling. The analysis is done with the micro-data from the 1981 and 1986 Canadian Censuses. Based on their distribution by industry and occupation, recent immigrants are more likely to compete with the disadvantaged groups of Canadian workers than with advantaged ones. However, an analysis of relative earnings by region shows that the relationship between the earnings differentials and the proportion of immigrants is not the same for all the disadvantaged groups. In particular, earnings differentials between men and women tend to be lower in the regions with a high proportion of immigrants than in those with a low proportion. Thus, immigration does not seem to have a negative impact on women's labour market and may even have a positive one. In contrast, earnings differentials between younger and prime age males are larger in the regions with a high proportion of immigrants than in those with a low proportion. Thus, immigration may have affected negatively the economic position of younger males, although other factors may have played a role as well. Le but de cette étude est d’examiner l’effet de l’immigration sur le marché de certains groupes de travailleurs canadiens désavantagés, soit les femmes, les jeunes travailleurs et les travailleurs peu scolarisés. L’analyse est faite à partir de micro-données des recensements de 1981 et 1986. Sur la base de leur répartition par secteur d’activité et par profession, les immigrants récents sont plus susceptibles d’être en concurrence avec les travailleurs canadiens désavantagés qu’avec les travailleurs avantagés. Cependant, une analyse des revenus de travail relatifs selon la région montre que la relation entre les écarts de revenus et la proportion d’immigrants n’est pas la même pour tous les groupes désavantagés. Plus particulièrement, les écarts de revenus entre hommes et femmes ont tendance à être plus petits dans les régions où il y a beaucoup d’immigrants que dans celles où il y en a peu. L’immigration ne semble donc pas avoir d’impact négatif sur le marché du travail des femmes et a peut-être même un effet positif. Par contre, les écarts de revenus entre les hommes jeunes et les hommes plus âgés sont plus grands dans les régions où il y a beaucoup d’immigrants que dans celles où il y en a peu. Il est donc possible que l’immigration ait affecté négativement les jeunes travailleurs de sexe masculin, quoique d’autres facteurs aient aussi pu jouer.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 68 (1992)
Issue (Month): 4 (décembre)
Pages: 697-713

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:68:y:1992:i:4:p:697-713

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  1. McKinley L. Blackburn & David E. Bloom & Richard B. Freeman, 1989. "The Declining Economic Position of Less-Skilled American Males," NBER Working Papers 3186, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Frank Bean & B. Lowell & Lowell Taylor, 1988. "Undocumented Mexican immigrants and the earnings of other workers in the United States," Demography, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 35-52, February.
  3. repec:fth:coluec:452 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Joseph Altonji & David Card, 1989. "The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcome of Less-Skilled Natives," Working Papers 636, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  5. George J. Borjas & Richard B. Freeman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1992. "On the Labor Market Effects of Immigration and Trade," NBER Chapters, in: Immigration and the Workforce: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas, pages 213-244 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Charles M. Beach & Christopher Worswick, 1993. "Is There a Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 19(1), pages 36-53, March.

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