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Hacia una revisión crítica del análisis neoclásico del consumo: una alternativa basada en las necesidades

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  • Mónica Guillén Royo

    (Univ. Girona)

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    Abstract

    Tradicionalmente, la teoría neoclásica de la elección del consumidor analiza el comportamiento de éste a partir supuestos como la generación exógena de preferencias, la soberanía del consumidor y la maximización de la utilidad o bienestar individual. Este análisis teórico aparece limitado en su alcance cuando se contrasta la realidad del proceso de consumo de una gran parte de las sociedades ricas, que son las que realizan la mayor proporción del consumo mundial de bienes y servicios, ya que aumentos de éste no se asocian directamente a incrementos de bienestar. El marco neoclásico tradicional ha sido ampliado por diversos economistas ortodoxos, entre ellos Sen (1977), Stigler y Becker (1977) y Akerlof y Dickens (1984) potenciando así su alcance explicativo. Sin embargo, las propuestas citadas, aunque relajan algunos supuestos básicos, siguen considerando el proceso de elección del consumidor como un proceso ajeno al proceso expansivo del sistema capitalista. En la presente comunicación se apunta que la incorporación de los postulados básicos de la teoría de las necesidades humanas (Doyal y Gough, 1994) en el análisis del proceso de consumo permite distinguir entre bienes consumidos, sean estos generados por necesidades básicas o aspiraciones. De esta manera se destaca el importante papel del sistema productivo en las decisiones de consumo que condiciona y determina aspiraciones y redirige el proceso de adquisición de satisfactores de necesidades.

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    Article provided by Asociación de Economía Crítica in its journal Revista de Economía Crítica.

    Volume (Year): 1 (2003)
    Issue (Month): ()
    Pages: 95-111

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    Handle: RePEc:ret:ecocri:rec01_06

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    Keywords: teoría de la eleccion del consumidor; consumo; necesidades humanas;

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    1. Nicolaides, Phedon, 1988. "Limits to the Expansion of Neoclassical Economics," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(3), pages 313-28, September.
    2. Stigler, George J & Becker, Gary S, 1977. "De Gustibus Non Est Disputandum," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 76-90, March.
    3. Winston, Gordon C., 1980. "Addiction and backsliding : A theory of compulsive consumption," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 295-324, December.
    4. Woolley, Frances R, 1993. "The Feminist Challenge to Neoclassical Economics," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(4), pages 485-500, December.
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