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La politique agricole dans les négociations internationales

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  • Louis-Pascal Mahé
  • Cathie Laroche-Dupraz

Abstract

[fre] L'article porte sur le principal volet extérieur de la politique agricole française: les relations entre la PAC et le GATT. Il examine les liens entre l'évolution de la pac et les cycles de négociations du gatt. En dépit des nombreux problèmes apparus, la pac n'a pas changé de manière significative, même en 1984, avant la réforme de 1992 et le cycle Uruguay. La stratégie française nous paraît trop influencée par une vision à court terme de l'intérêt national basée sur le retour budgétaire et l'avantage commercial. Les concessions perçues comme mineures lors des premiers rounds du gatt ont rendu la politique céréalière intenable. La politique agricole française est paradoxale, car fondée sur le soutien des prix en situation d'exportateur structurel. Des explications de cette spécificité française sont avancées, dont le caractère supranational de la pac. L'agenda 2000 et la Loi d'orientation pourraient préfigurer une politique agricole d'avenir, cohérente avec un modèle européen de l'espace rural, si l'ensemble du soutien passait par le dispositif des cte et était fondé sur des pratiques agricoles et non sur des productions. [eng] THE FRENCH AGRICULTURAL POLICY WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL ROUNDS : TIME OF AGGIORNAMENTO . The paper covers the main topic of the French agricultural trade policy: the cap and the gatt. We review some developments of the cap in relation to the successive gatt rounds. Against early evidence of difficulties, the cap was not significantly adjusted, even in 1984, before the 1992 reform under the pressure of the Uruguay Round and of the previous concessions making the grain policy untenable. The French agricultural strategy is seen as too narrowly focused on the financial and trade benefits derived from the customs union and the financial solidarity principle. The French agricultural policy is paradoxical for a structural exporter as it relies extensively on market support, intervention and restitutions. Some explanations of this French paradox are suggested, and the supra national nature of the cap viewed as a main factor. Agenda 2000 and the « Loi d'orientation » could launch a far reaching agricultural policy, consistent with the European model of the countryside, if the whole support to the farm sector were channelled through the system of the «Contrats territoriaux d'exploitation», based not on agricultural products volumes, but on agricultural practices and effective environmental services.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ecoru.2000.5166
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ecoru_0013-0559_2000_num_255_1_5166/ecoru_0013-0559_2000_num_255_1_5166.pdf?mode=light
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie rurale.

Volume (Year): 255 (2000)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 135-153

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Handle: RePEc:prs:recoru:ecoru_0013-0559_2000_num_255_1_5166

Note: DOI:10.3406/ecoru.2000.5166
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ecoru

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