Estimating the Middle Class in Pakistan
AbstractThe middle class is primarily an urban phenomenon generally associated with professional occupations, service sector and salaried jobs. Yet despite a general acceptance of the important economic, political and social role that the middle class plays in society, the term itself remains ambiguous and arbitrary. In much of recent literature the middle class is equated with middle income which does not reflect what „class? refers to in classical writings. The present paper takes a multidimensional approach to measure the middle class in Pakistan through a weighted composite index that takes into account all possible factors associated with the concept, including income, occupation, education, housing and lifestyle. Using the Pakistan Social and Living Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2007-08, the magnitude of the middle class in the country, as represented by the „expanded middle class?, is estimated at around 35 percent of the total population. The proposed measure of the middle class has a sense of stability attached to it, making it less susceptible to sudden inflationary shocks than an income-based measure.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.
Volume (Year): 50 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pakistan; Middle Class; Multidimensional;
Other versions of this item:
- Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
- R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General
- A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- François Bourguignon & Satya Chakravarty, 2003.
"The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty,"
Journal of Economic Inequality,
Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 25-49, April.
- Andreas Peichl & Thilo Schaefer & Christoph Scheicher, 2010.
"Measuring Richness And Poverty: A Micro Data Application To Europe And Germany,"
Review of Income and Wealth,
International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(3), pages 597-619, 09.
- Peichl, Andreas & Schaefer, Thilo & Scheicher, Christoph, 2008. "Measuring Richness and Poverty: A Micro Data Application to Europe and Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 3790, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Anthony B. Atkinson & Andrea Brandolini, 2011. "On the identification of the “middle class”," Working Papers 217, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005.
"The Idea of South Asia and the Role of the Middle Class,"
Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series
qt3868p628, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005. "The idea of South Asia and the role of the middle class," MPRA Paper 1277, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005. "The Idea of South Asia and the Role of the Middle Class," Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, Working Paper Series qt3868p628, Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Singh, Nirvikar, 2005. "The Idea of South Asia and the Role of the Middle Class," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1ph1x8dv, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
- Esther Duflo & Abhijit Banerjee, 2008.
"What is Middle Class About the Middle Classes Around the World?,"
- Abhijit V. Banerjee & Esther Duflo, 2008. "What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 3-28, Spring.
- Banerjee, Abhijit & Duflo, Esther, 2007. "What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes Around the World?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6613, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Michal Brzezinski, 2010. "Income Affluence in Poland," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 99(2), pages 285-299, November.
- Kolm, Serge-Christophe, 1977. "Multidimensional Egalitarianisms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 91(1), pages 1-13, February.
- Chun, Natalie, 2010. "Middle Class Size in the Past, Present, and Future: A Description of Trends in Asia," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 217, Asian Development Bank.
- Andrea Brandolini & Silvia Magri & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010.
"Asset-based measurement of poverty,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
755, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Easterly, William, 2000.
"the middle class consensus and economic development,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2346, The World Bank.
- Easterly, William, 2001. " The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 317-35, December.
- Chiara GIGLIARANO & Karl MOSLER, 2009. "Measuring middle-class decline in one and many attributes," Working Papers 333, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1999. "Conflict and Distribution," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 379-415, August.
- Lukas Schlogl & Andy Sumner, 2014. "How Middle Class are the ‘Emerging Middle’ or ‘Scooter Class’ in Indonesia? A Household Asset Approach to Social Stratification," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201407, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised May 2014.
- G. M. Arif & Shujaat Farooq, 2012. "Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: Learning from the Experience of China," PIDE Monograph Series 2012:5, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- repec:pid:wpaper:2012:5 is not listed on IDEAS
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.