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How Does Venture Capital Financing Improve Efficiency in Private Firms? A Look Beneath the Surface

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  • Thomas J. Chemmanur
  • Karthik Krishnan
  • Debarshi K. Nandy

Abstract

We use the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) of the U.S. Census Bureau, which covers the entire universe of private and public U.S. manufacturing firms, to study several related questions regarding the efficiency gains generated by venture capital (VC) investment in private firms. First, do VCs indeed improve the efficiency (total factor productivity, TFP) of private firms, and if so, are certain kinds of VCs (high reputation vs. low reputation) better at generating such efficiency gains than others? Second, do VCs invest in more efficient firms to begin with (screening), or do they improve efficiency after investment (monitoring)? Third, do efficiency improvements due to VC backing arise from increases in sales or reductions in costs? Fourth, do VC backing and the associated efficiency gains affect the probability of a successful exit (IPO or acquisition)? Our analysis shows that the overall efficiency of VC-backed firms is higher than that of non-VC-backed firms at every point in time. This efficiency advantage of VC-backed firms arises from both screening and monitoring: The efficiency of VC-backed firms prior to receiving financing is higher than that of non-VC-backed firms, and further, the growth in efficiency subsequent to VC financing is greater for such firms. The above increases in efficiency of VC-backed firms are spread over the first two rounds of VC financing after which the TFP of such firms remains constant until exit. Additionally, we show that while the TFP of firms prior to receiving financing is lower for high-reputation VC-backed firms, the increase in TFP subsequent to financing is significantly greater for these firms, consistent with high-reputation VCs having greater monitoring ability. We disentangle the screening and monitoring effects of VC backing using three different methodologies: switching regression with endogenous switching, regression discontinuity analysis, and propensity score matching. We show that while overall efficiency gains generated by VC backing arise primarily from improvements in sales, the efficiency gains of high-reputation VC-backed firms arise also from lower increases in production costs. Finally, we show that VC backing and the associated efficiency gains positively affect the probability of a successful exit. The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com., Oxford University Press.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Society for Financial Studies in its journal Review of Financial Studies.

Volume (Year): 24 ()
Issue (Month): 12 ()
Pages: 4037-4090

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Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:24:y::i:12:p:4037-4090

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Cited by:
  1. Marquez, Robert & Nanda, Vikram & Yavuz, M. Deniz, 2010. "Private Equity Fund Returns: Do Managers Actually Leave Money on the Table?," Working Papers 10-24, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
  2. Da Rin, M. & Hellmann, T. & Puri, M.L., 2011. "A Survey of Venture Capital Research," Discussion Paper 2011-111, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Ola Bengtsson & John R. M. Hand, 2013. "Employee Compensation in Entrepreneurial Companies," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 312-340, 06.
  4. Thomas Åstebro & Carlos J. Serrano, 2011. "Business Partners, Financing, and the Commercialization of Inventions," NBER Working Papers 17181, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Matthew Beacham & Bipasa Datta, 2013. "Who Becomes the Winner? Effects of Venture Capital on Firms’ Innovative Incentives - A Theoretical Investigation," Discussion Papers 13/33, Department of Economics, University of York.
  6. Bengtsson, Ola & Sensoy, Berk A., 2011. "Investor abilities and financial contracting: Evidence from venture capital," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 477-502, October.
  7. Bertoni, Fabio & Colombo, Massimo G. & Grilli, Luca, 2011. "Venture capital financing and the growth of high-tech start-ups: Disentangling treatment from selection effects," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 1028-1043, September.
  8. Aaron Chatterji & Edward L. Glaeser & William R. Kerr, 2013. "Clusters of Entrepreneurship and Innovation," NBER Working Papers 19013, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Hirukawa, Masayuki & Ueda, Masako, 2008. "Venture Capital and Industrial ''Innovation''," CEPR Discussion Papers 7089, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Bengtsson, Ola & Hand, John R.M., 2011. "CEO compensation in venture-backed firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 391-411, July.
  11. Bozkaya, Ant & Kerr, William R., 2013. "Labor regulations and European venture capital," Research Discussion Papers 30/2013, Bank of Finland.
  12. Colombo, Massimo G. & Cumming, Douglas & Mohammadi, Ali & Rossi-Lamastra , Cristina & Wadhwa , Anu, 2014. "Open Business Models And Venture Capital Finance," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 347, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  13. Stotz, Olaf & Wanzenried, Gabrielle & Döhnert, Karsten, 2010. "Open-market purchases of public equity by private equity investors: Size and home-bias effects," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(6), pages 562-576, November.
  14. Bengtsson, Ola & Hsu, David H., 2013. "Ethnic Matching in the U.S. Venture Capital Market," Knut Wicksell Working Paper Series 2013/8, Knut Wicksell Centre for Financial Studies, Lund University.
  15. Arqué-Castells, Pere, 2012. "How venture capitalists spur invention in Spain: Evidence from patent trajectories," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 897-912.
  16. Hirukawa, Masayuki & Ueda, Masako, 2008. "Venture Capital and Innovation: Which is First?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7090, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. James A. Brander & Qianqian Du & Thomas F. Hellmann, 2010. "The Effects of Government-Sponsored Venture Capital: International Evidence," NBER Working Papers 16521, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Pei-Gi Shu & Yin-Hua Yeh & Shean-Bii Chiu & Fu-Sheng Ho, 2011. "The reputation effect of venture capital," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 36(4), pages 533-554, May.
  19. Tian, Xuan, 2011. "The causes and consequences of venture capital stage financing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(1), pages 132-159, July.

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