The Going-Public Decision and the Product Market
AbstractAt what point in a firm's life should it go public? How do a firm's ex ante product market characteristics relate to its going-public decision? Further, what are the implications of a firm going public on its post-IPO operating and product market performance? In this article, we answer the above questions by conducting the first large sample study of the going-public decisions of U.S. firms in the literature. We use the Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) of the U.S. Census Bureau, which covers the entire universe of private and public U.S. manufacturing firms. Our findings can be summarized as follows. First, a private firm's product market characteristics (total factor productivity [TFP], size, sales growth, market share, industry competitiveness, capital intensity, and cash flow riskiness) significantly affect its likelihood of going public after controlling for its access to private financing (venture capital or bank loans). Second, private firms facing less information asymmetry and those with projects that are cheaper for outsiders to evaluate are more likely to go public. Third, as more firms in an industry go public, the concentration of that industry increases in subsequent years. The above results are robust to controlling for the interactions between various product market and firm-specific variables. Fourth, IPOs of firms occur at the peak of their productivity cycle: the dynamics of TFP and sales growth exhibit an inverted U-shaped pattern, both in our univariate analysis and in our multivariate analysis using firms that remained private throughout as a benchmark. Finally, sales, capital expenditures, and other performance variables exhibit a consistently increasing pattern over the years before and after the IPO. The last two findings are consistent with the view that the widely documented post-IPO operating underperformance of firms is due to the real investment effects of going public rather than being due to earnings management immediately prior to the IPO. The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society for Financial Studies. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org., Oxford University Press.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Society for Financial Studies in its journal The Review of Financial Studies.
Volume (Year): 23 (2010)
Issue (Month): 5 ()
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Oxford University Press, Journals Department, 2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513 USA.
Web page: http://www.rfs.oupjournals.org/
More information through EDIRC
Other versions of this item:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bhattacharya, Sudipto & Ritter, Jay R, 1983. "Innovation and Communication: Signalling with Partial Disclosure," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(2), pages 331-46, April.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
- Jay R. Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002.
"A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1795-1828, 08.
- Jay Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing and Allocations," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm258, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Apr 2002.
- Jay Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations," NBER Working Papers 8805, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lerner, Joshua, 1994. "Venture capitalists and the decision to go public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 293-316, June.
- Gian Luca Clementi, 2004.
"IPO's and the Growth of Firms,"
04-23, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Kiefer, Nicholas M, 1988. "Economic Duration Data and Hazard Functions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(2), pages 646-79, June.
- Krishnaswami, Sudha & Subramaniam, Venkat, 1999. "Information asymmetry, valuation, and the corporate spin-off decision," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 73-112, July.
- Antoinette Schoar, 2002. "Effects of Corporate Diversification on Productivity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2379-2403, December.
- Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
- Mitchell A. Petersen, 2009.
"Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 435-480, January.
- Mitchell A. Petersen, 2005. "Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches," NBER Working Papers 11280, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arnoud W. A. Boot & Radhakrishnan Gopalan & Anjan V. Thakor, 2006. "The Entrepreneur's Choice between Private and Public Ownership," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 803-836, 04.
- Siew Hong Teoh & Ivo Welch & T.J. Wong, 1998. "Earnings Management and the Long-Run Market Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1935-1974, December.
- Christie, Andrew A., 1987. "On cross-sectional analysis in accounting research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 231-258, December.
- Campbell, Tim S., 1979. "Optimal Investment Financing Decisions and the Value of Confidentiality," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(05), pages 913-924, December.
- Eric J. Bartelsman & Wayne Gray, 1996. "The NBER Manufacturing Productivity Database," NBER Technical Working Papers 0205, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chemmanur, Thomas J & Fulghieri, Paolo, 1999. "A Theory of the Going-Public Decision," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 249-79.
- Welch, Ivo, 1989. " Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 421-49, June.
- Maksimovic, Vojislav & Pichler, Pegaret, 2001. "Technological Innovation and Initial Public Offerings," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 459-94.
- Shumway, Tyler, 2001. "Forecasting Bankruptcy More Accurately: A Simple Hazard Model," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(1), pages 101-24, January.
- Marco Pagano & Ailsa Röell, 1998. "The Choice Of Stock Ownership Structure: Agency Costs, Monitoring, And The Decision To Go Public," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(1), pages 187-225, February.
- Zingales, Luigi, 1995. "Insider Ownership and the Decision to Go Public," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(3), pages 425-48, July.
- Yosha Oved, 1995. "Information Disclosure Costs and the Choice of Financing Source," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 3-20, January.
- Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Partch, M. Megan & Shah, Kshitij, 1997. "Ownership and operating performance of companies that go public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 281-307, June.
- Chemmanur, Thomas J, 1993. " The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: A Dynamic Model with Information Production," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 285-304, March.
- Ljungqvist, Alexander & Boehmer, Ekkehart, 2004. "On the decision to go public: Evidence from privately-held firms," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,16, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Boyan Jovanovic & Peter L. Rousseau, 2009.
"Extensive and Intensive Investment over the Business Cycle,"
NBER Working Papers
14960, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Boyan Jovanovic & Peter L. Rousseau, 2009. "Extensive and Intensive Investment Over the Business Cycle," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0912, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
- Tomas Mantecon & Paul Thistle, 2011. "The IPO market as a screening device and the going public decision: evidence from acquisitions of privately and publicly held firms," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 325-361, October.
- Thomas J. Chemmanur & Karthik Krishnan & Debarshi K. Nandy, 0.
"How Does Venture Capital Financing Improve Efficiency in Private Firms? A Look Beneath the Surface,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(12), pages 4037-4090.
- Thomas Chemmanur & Karthik Krishnan & Debarshi Nandy, 2008. "How Does Venture Capital Financing Improve Efficiency in Private Firms? A Look Beneath the Surface," Working Papers 08-16, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Mayur, Manas & Kumar, Manoj, 2006. "An Empirical Investigation of Going Public Decision of Indian Companies," MPRA Paper 1801, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Bernstein, Shai, 2012. "Does Going Public Affect Innovation?," Research Papers 2126, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Astudillo, Alfonso & Braun, Matias & Castaneda, Pablo, 2011.
"The Going Public Decision and the Structure of Equity Markets,"
38640, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Astudillo, Alfonso & Braun, Matías & Castañeda, Pablo, 2011. "The going public decision and the structure of equity markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1451-1470.
- Richard J. Rosen & Scott B. Smart & Chad J. Zutter, 2005. "Why do firms go public? evidence from the banking industry," Working Paper Series WP-05-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Anna Kovner & Chenyang Wei, 2012.
"The private premium in public bonds,"
12-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Hiroshi Osano & Keiichi Hori, 2013. "Managerial Incentives and the Role of Advisors in the Continuous-Time Agency Model," KIER Working Papers 863, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
- Jirapun Chorruk & Andrew Worthington, 2010. "Firm-specific determinants and outcomes of initial public offerings in Thailand, 2001–2007," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:201002, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.
- Gill, Andrej & Walz, Uwe, 2012. "Going public - going private: The case of VC-backed firms," CFS Working Paper Series 2012/02, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
- Ferreira, Daniel & Manso, Gustavo & Silva, André C., 2010. "Incentives to Innovate and the Decision to Go Public or Private," CEPR Discussion Papers 7750, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Xie, Xiaoying, 2010. "Are publicly held firms less efficient? Evidence from the US property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1549-1563, July.
- Thomas J. Chemmanur & Jie He, 2012.
"IPO Waves, Product Market Competition, and the Going Public Decision: Theory and Evidence,"
12-07, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Chemmanur, Thomas J. & He, Jie, 2011. "IPO waves, product market competition, and the going public decision: Theory and evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 382-412, August.
- Helwege, Jean & Packer, Frank, 2009. "Private matters," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 362-383, July.
- Loderer, Claudio & Waelchli, Urs, 2010. "Firm age and performance," MPRA Paper 26450, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Ertugrul, Mine & Krishnan, Karthik, 2011. "Can CEO dismissals be proactive?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 134-151, February.
- Lily Qiu & Gerard Hoberg, 2006. "Growth to Value: A Difficult Journey for IPOs and Concentrated Industries," Working Papers 2005-17, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Asker, John & Farre-Mensa, Joan & Ljungqvist, Alexander P., 2010. "Does the Stock Market Harm Investment Incentives?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7857, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Arikawa, Yasuhiro & Imad'eddine, Gael, 2010. "Venture capital affiliation with underwriters and the underpricing of initial public offerings in Japan," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(6), pages 502-516, November.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Oxford University Press) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.