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On the Capital Structure of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

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  • Zhilan Feng

    ()

  • Chinmoy Ghosh
  • C. Sirmans

Abstract

Much of the literature on capital structure excludes Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) due mainly to the unique regulatory environment of these firms. As such, the issue of how REITs choose among different financing options when they raise external capital is largely unexplored. In this paper, we explore two issues on the capital structure of REITs: is there a relationship between market-to-book and leverage ratios, and, is the relationship between market-to-book and leverage ratio temporary or persistent. Our results suggest that REITs with historically high market-to-book ratio tend to have persistently high leverage ratio. In essence, REITs with high growth opportunity and high market valuation raise funds through debt issues. This finding, which is robust to various specifications and econometric tests, is contrary to the financing decisions of non-regulated firms. We attribute it to the special regulatory environment of REITs where, despite no apparent benefits to debt financing, management issues debt. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Springer in its journal The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics.

Volume (Year): 34 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 81-105

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Handle: RePEc:kap:jrefec:v:34:y:2007:i:1:p:81-105

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Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=102945

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Keywords: Capital structure; Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs); External capital; Market-to-book; Leverage ratio;

References

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  1. Robert D. Campbell & Chinmoy Ghosh & C. F. Sirmans, 2001. "The Information Content of Method of Payment in Mergers: Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 29(3), pages 361-387.
  2. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Smith, C.W. & Watts, R.L., 1992. "The Investment Oppotunity set and Corporate Financing, Dividend and Compensation Policies," Papers 92-02, Rochester, Business - Financial Research and Policy Studies.
  4. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
  5. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1994. "What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," NBER Working Papers 4875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  7. Jeffrey A. Wurgler & Malcolm P. Baker, 2001. "Market Timing and Capital Structure," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm181, Yale School of Management.
  8. Han, Bing, 2004. "Insider Ownership and Corporate Value: Evidences from Real Estate Investment Trust," Working Paper Series 2004-1, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
  9. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
  11. Frank, Murray Z. & Goyal, Vidhan K., 2003. "Testing the pecking order theory of capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 217-248, February.
  12. Shyam-Sunder, Lakshmi & C. Myers, Stewart, 1999. "Testing static tradeoff against pecking order models of capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 219-244, February.
  13. Michael J. Barclay & Erwan Morellec, 2006. "On the Debt Capacity of Growth Options," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(1), pages 37-60, January.
  14. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
  15. Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
  16. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-36, May-June.
  17. David T. Brown & Timothy J. Riddiough, 2003. "Financing Choice and Liability Structure of Real Estate Investment Trusts," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(3), pages 313-346, 09.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Joseph Ooi & Seow-Eng Ong & Lin Li, 2010. "An Analysis of the Financing Decisions of REITs: The Role of Market Timing and Target Leverage," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 130-160, February.
  2. Isil Erol & Dogan Tirtiroglu, 2011. "Concentrated Ownership, No Dividend Payout Requirement and Capital Structure of REITs: Evidence from Turkey," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 174-204, July.
  3. William Hardin & Michael Highfield & Matthew Hill & G. Kelly, 2009. "The Determinants of REIT Cash Holdings," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 39-57, July.
  4. Jamie Alcock & John Glascock & Eva Steiner, 2013. "Manipulation in U.S. REIT Investment Performance Evaluation: Empirical Evidence," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 434-465, October.
  5. M. Kabir Hassan & Yasser Alhenawi & Hesham Merdad, 2011. "The Relative Performance of Debt-restricted Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): Does Faith Matter?," NFI Working Papers 2011-WP-16, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
  6. Benjamin Blau & Matthew Hill & Hao Wang, 2011. "REIT Short Sales and Return Predictability," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 481-503, May.
  7. Jamie Alcock & Eva Steiner & Kelvin Tan, 2014. "Joint Leverage and Maturity Choices in Real Estate Firms: The Role of the REIT Status," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 57-78, January.
  8. George Cashman & David Harrison & Michael Seiler, 2014. "Advisor Choice in Asia-Pacific Property Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 271-298, February.
  9. Hohenstatt, Ralf & Steininger, Bertram, 2011. "The rat race of capital structure research for REITs and REOCs: Two spotlights on leverage," ZEW Discussion Papers 11-077, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.

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