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Tax-Spend, Spend-Tax, or Fiscal Synchronization: A Panel Analysis of the Chinese Provincial Real Data

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  • Yuan-Hong Ho

    (Department of Public Finance, Feng Chia University, Taiwan)

  • Chiung-Ju Huang

    ()
    (Department of Public Finance, Feng Chia University, Taiwan)

Abstract

In this paper we tested whether the hypothesis of tax-spend, spend-tax, or fiscal synchronization applies to the 31 Chinese provinces using cross-sectional and time series data covering 1999 to 2005. The interaction between government revenues and government expenditures is tested with the newly developed panel unit root tests and heterogeneous panel cointegration tests. The results show that both revenues and expenditures are non-stationary but have a significant long-run relationship. The results based on multivariate panel error-correction models show that there is no significant causality between revenues and expenditures in the short run. However, in the long-run, a bi-directional causality exists between revenues and expenditures, thus supporting the fiscal synchronization hypothesis for 31 Chinese provinces over this sample period.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by College of Business, Feng Chia University, Taiwan in its journal Journal of Economics and Management.

Volume (Year): 5 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 (July)
Pages: 257-272

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Handle: RePEc:jec:journl:v:5:y:2009:i:2:p:257-272

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Related research

Keywords: tax-spend; spend-tax; fiscal synchronization; panel cointegration;

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References

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  1. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-70, Special I.
  2. Baffes, John & Shah, Anwar, 1994. "Causality and comovement between taxes and expenditures: Historical evidence from Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 311-331, August.
  3. Granger, Clive W J, 1986. "Developments in the Study of Cointegrated Economic Variables," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 48(3), pages 213-28, August.
  4. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
  5. Peter Pedroni, 2000. "Fully Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-03, Department of Economics, Williams College.
  6. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  7. Tsangyao Chang & Yuan-Hong Ho, 2002. "A Note on Testing ¡°Tax-and-Spend, Spend-and-Tax or Fiscal Synchronization¡±: The Case of China," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 27(1), pages 151-160, June.
  8. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  9. Xiaoming Li, 2001. "Government revenue, government expenditure, and temporal causality: evidence from China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 485-497.
  10. von Furstenberg, George M & Green, R Jeffrey & Jeong, Jin-Ho, 1986. "Tax and Spend, or Spend and Tax?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 179-88, May.
  11. James Payne, 1997. "The tax-spend debate: the case of Canada," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(6), pages 381-386.
  12. Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
  13. Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
  14. Tsangyao Chang & Wen Rong Liu & Steven Caudill, 2002. "Tax-and-spend, spend-and-tax, or fiscal synchronization: new evidence for ten countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(12), pages 1553-1561.
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Cited by:
  1. Peter Calkins & Songsak Sriboonchitta & Aree Wiboonpongse, 2009. "Econometric Advances in the Service of Macroeconomic Prediction and Planning: An Overview," Journal of Economics and Management, College of Business, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, vol. 5(2), pages 159-166, July.
  2. G A Vamvoukas, 2011. "The Tax-Spend Debate with an Application to the EU," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 16(1), pages 65-88, March.

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