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Own-Brand and Cross-Brand Retail Pass-Through

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Author Info

  • David Besanko

    ()
    (Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208)

  • Jean-Pierre Dubé

    ()
    (Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637)

  • Sachin Gupta

    ()
    (Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853)

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    Abstract

    In this paper we describe the pass-through behavior of a major U.S. supermarket chain for 78 products across 11 categories. Our data set includes retail prices and wholesale prices for stores in 15 retail price zones for a one-year period. For the empirical model, we use a reduced-form approach that focuses directly on equilibrium prices as a function of exogenous supply- and demand-shifting variables. The reduced-form approach enables us to identify the theoretical pass-through rate without specific assumptions about the form of consumer demand or the conduct of a category-pricing manager. Thus, our measurements of pass-through are not constrained by specific structure on the underlying economic model. The empirical pricing model includes costs of all competing products in the category on the right-hand side (not only the cost of the focal brand) and yields estimates of both own-brand and cross-brand pass-through rates. Our results provide a rich picture of the retailer's pass-through behavior. We find that pass-through varies substantially across products and across categories. Own-brand pass-through rates are, on average, more than 60% for 9 of 11 categories, a finding that is at odds with the claims of manufacturers about retailers in general. Importantly, we find substantial evidence of cross-brand pass-through effects, indicating that retail prices of competing products are adjusted in response to a change in the wholesale price of any given product in the category. We find that cross-brand pass-through rates are both positive and negative. We explore determinants of own-brand and cross-brand pass-through rates and find strong evidence in multiple categories of asymmetric retailer response to trade promotions on large versus small brands. For example, brands with larger market shares, and brands that contribute more to retailer profits in the category, receive higher pass-through. We also find that trade promotions on large brands are less likely than small brands to generate positive cross-brand pass-through, i.e., induce the retailer to reduce the retail price of competing smaller products. On the other hand, small share brands are disadvantaged along three dimensions. Trade promotions on small brands receive low own-brand pass-through generate positive cross-brand pass-through for larger competing brands. Moreover, small share brands do not receive positive cross pass-through from trade promotions on these larger competitors. We also find that store brands are similarly disadvantaged with respect to national brands.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1030.0043
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Marketing Science.

    Volume (Year): 24 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 1 (July)
    Pages: 123-137

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    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:24:y:2005:i:1:p:123-137

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    Related research

    Keywords: pricing; promotion; retailing; channels of distribution; econometric models;

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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Draganska, Michaela & Klapper, Daniel & Villas-Boas, Sofia B, 2008. "A Larger Slice or a Larger Pie? An Empirical Investigation of Bargaining Power in the Distribution Channel," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt7v13q46w, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
    2. Haans, A.J. & Gijsbrechts, E., 2011. "One-deal-fits-all?: On category sales promotion effectiveness in smaller versus larger supermarkets," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4643292, Tilburg University.
    3. Bykadorov, Igor & Ellero, Andrea & Moretti, Elena & Vianello, Silvia, 2009. "The role of retailer's performance in optimal wholesale price discount policies," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 194(2), pages 538-550, April.
    4. Meghan Busse & Jorge Silva-Risso & Florian Zettelmeyer, 2006. "$1,000 Cash Back: The Pass-Through of Auto Manufacturer Promotions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1253-1270, September.
    5. Gomez, Miguel I. & Rao, Vithala R. & Yuan, Hong, 2009. "A Market Experiment on Trade Promotion Budget and Allocation," Working Papers 55928, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    6. Ailawadi, K.H. & Bradlow, E.T. & Draganska, M. & Nijs, V. & Rooderkerk, R.P. & Sudhir, K. & Wilbur, K.C. & Zhang, J., 2010. "Empirical models of manufacturer-retailer interaction: A review and agenda for future research," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4163972, Tilburg University.
    7. Weyl, E. Glen, 2008. "Monopolies in Two-Sided Markets: Comparative Statics and Identification," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt69c9c56z, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    8. Kleshchelski, Isaac & Vincent, Nicolas, 2009. "Market share and price rigidity," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 344-352, April.
    9. Hwang, M. & Bronnenberg, B.J. & Thomadsen, R., 2010. "An empirical analysis of assortment similarities across U.S. supermarkets," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3736994, Tilburg University.
    10. Richard Volpe, 2013. "Promotional Competition Between Supermarket Chains," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 45-61, February.
    11. Almehdawe, Eman & Mantin, Benny, 2010. "Vendor managed inventory with a capacitated manufacturer and multiple retailers: Retailer versus manufacturer leadership," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 292-302, November.
    12. Arcelus, F.J. & Kumar, Satyendra & Srinivasan, G., 2007. "Pricing and rebate policies for the newsvendor problem in the presence of a stochastic redemption rate," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 467-482, June.
    13. Chaykina, Taisiya & Guerreiro, Manuela & Mendes, Júlio, 2014. "Destination Brand Personality of Portugal for the Russian-Speaking Market," Journal of Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, CIEO-Research Centre for Spatial and Organizational Dynamics, University of Algarve, vol. 2(1), pages 23-40.

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