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Coping Strategies to Deal with Environmental Variability and Extreme Climatic Events in the Peruvian Anchovy Fishery

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Author Info

  • Milena Arias Schreiber

    ()
    (Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT), Fahrenheitstrasse 6, D-28359 Bremen, Germany
    Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences (GLOMAR), Bremen University MARUM-Building, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Bremen, Germany)

  • Miguel Ñiquen

    ()
    (Instituto del Mar del Perú/Esq. Gamarra y Gral Valle s/n, Chucuito, Callao, Peru)

  • Marilú Bouchon

    ()
    (Instituto del Mar del Perú/Esq. Gamarra y Gral Valle s/n, Chucuito, Callao, Peru)

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    Abstract

    The Peruvian anchovy fishery is the largest worldwide in terms of catches. The fishery started during the mid 1950s, and since then it has been highly dependent on natural stock fluctuations, due to the sensitivity of anchovy stocks to ocean-climate variability. The main driver of anchovy stock variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and three extreme ENSO warm events were recorded in 1972–1973, 1983–1984 and 1997–1998. This study investigates the evolution of coping strategies developed by the anchovy fisheries to deal with climate variability and extreme ENSO events. Results showed eight coping strategies to reduce impacts on the fishery. These included: decentralized installation of anchovy processing factories; simultaneous ownership of fishing fleet and processing factories; use of low-cost unloading facilities; opportunistic utilization of invading fish populations; low cost intensive monitoring; rapid flexible management; reduction of fishmeal price uncertainty through controlled production based on market demand; and decoupling of fishmeal prices from those of other protein-rich feed substitutes like soybean. This research shows that there are concrete lessons to be learned from successful adaptations to cope with climate change-related extreme climatic events that impact the supply of natural resources. The lessons can contribute to improved policies for coping with climate change in the commercial fishery sector.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Sustainability.

    Volume (Year): 3 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 6 (June)
    Pages: 823-846

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    Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:3:y:2011:i:6:p:823-846:d:12796

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    Related research

    Keywords: anchovy fishery; Peru; ENSO; extreme climatic event; climate change;

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    References

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    1. Anonymous & Tsukayama, I., 1987. "The Peruvian anchoveta and its upwelling ecosystem: three decades of change," Technical Reports 44683, Worldfish Center.
    2. Frank Asche & Sigbjørn Tveter�s, 2004. "On the Relationship Between Aquaculture and Reduction Fisheries," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 245-265.
    3. Smetherman, Bobbie B & Smetherman, Robert M, 1973. "Peruvian Fisheries: Conservation and Development," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 338-51, January.
    4. Kristofersson, Dadi & Anderson, James L., 2006. "Is there a relationship between fisheries and farming? Interdependence of fisheries, animal production and aquaculture," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 721-725, November.
    5. Pauly, D. & Tsukayama, I. (eds.), 1987. "The Peruvian anchoveta and its upwelling ecosystem: three decades of change," Working Papers, The WorldFish Center, number 663.
    6. Thorpe, Andy & Ibarra, Alonso Aguilar & Reid, Chris, 2000. "The New Economic Model and Marine Fisheries Development in Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 1689-1702, September.
    7. Aguero, M. & Gonzalez, E., 1996. "Managing Transboundary Stocks of Small Pelagic Fish," World Bank - Discussion Papers 329, World Bank.
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