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On the portfolio effects of financial convergence - a review of the literature

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Author Info

  • Simon H. Kwan
  • Elizabeth S. Laderman

Abstract

This paper reviews the literature on the effects of combining banking and nonbank financial activities on banking organizations' risk and return. In general, securities activities, insurance agency, and insurance underwriting are all riskier and more profitable than banking activities. They also have the potential to provide diversification benefits to banking organizations. While real estate agency, title abstract activities, and real estate operation are more profitable than banking, real estate development may not be. Real estate activities are riskier than banking activities in general, and their diversification benefits for banking organizations are less clear.

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File URL: http://www.frbsf.org/econrsrch/econrev/99-2/18-31.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco in its journal Economic Review.

Volume (Year): (1999)
Issue (Month): ()
Pages: 18-31

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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedfer:y:1999:p:18-31:n:2

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Keywords: Banking Act of 1933 ; Bank investments ; Risk;

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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  1. Simon H. Kwan, 1998. "Securities activities by commercial banking firms' section 20 subsidiaries: risk, return, and diversification benefits," Proceedings 609, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  2. Flannery, Mark J., 1991. "Pricing deposit insurance when the insurer measures bank risk with error," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 975-998, September.
  3. Rodney N. Johnson & David R. Meinster, 1974. "Bank Holding Companies: Diversification Opportunities in Nonbank Activities," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 1(4), pages 316-323, October.
  4. Boyd, John H. & Graham, Stanley L. & Hewitt, R. Shawn, 1993. "Bank holding company mergers with nonbank financial firms: Effects on the risk of failure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 43-63, February.
  5. Tim S. Campbell & J. Kimball Dietrich & Mark I. Weinstein, 1985. "Some evidence on bank holding company regulation: the question of expansion into the insurance business," Proceedings 96, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  6. Apilado, Vincent P. & Gallo, John G. & Lockwood, Larry J., 1993. "Expanded securities underwriting: Implications for bank risk and return," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 143-158, May.
  7. Rose, Peter S, 1989. "Diversification of the Banking Firm," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 24(2), pages 251-80, May.
  8. Gary Whalen, 1998. "The relationship between organizational form and performance: the case of foreign securities subsidiaries of U.S. banking organizations," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sep.
  9. Simon Kwan, 1995. "The economics of merging commercial and investment banking," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue may19.
  10. Puri, Manju, 1994. "The long-term default performance of bank underwritten security issues," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 397-418, January.
  11. Kwast, Myron L., 1989. "The impact of underwriting and dealing on bank returns and risks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 101-125, March.
  12. John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1988. "The profitability and risk effects of allowing bank holding companies to merge with other financial firms: a simulation study," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 3-20.
  13. Larry D. Wall & Alan K. Reichert & Sunil Mohanty, 1993. "Deregulation and the opportunities for commercial bank diversification," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Sep, pages 1-25.
  14. Ang, James S. & Richardson, Terry, 1994. "The underwriting experience of commercial bank affiliates prior to the Glass-Steagall Act: A reexamination of evidence for passage of the act," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 351-395, January.
  15. John H. Boyd & Stanley L. Graham, 1988. "The profitability and risk effects of allowing bank holding companies to merge with other financial firms: a simulation study," Proceedings 213, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  16. White, Eugene Nelson, 1986. "Before the Glass-Steagall Act: An analysis of the investment banking activities of national banks," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 33-55, January.
  17. Elijah Brewer & Diana Fortier & Christine Pavel, 1988. "Bank risk from nonbank activities," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Jul, pages 14-26.
  18. Simon Kwan, 1998. "Securities activities by commercial banking firms' Section 20 subsidiaries: risk, return and diversification benefits," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 98-10, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. R. Vander Vennet & O. De Jonghe & L. Baele, 2004. "Bank risks and the business cycle," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/264, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  2. Wahyu Yuwana Hidayat & Makoto Kakinaka & Hiroaki Miyamoto, 2012. "Bank Risk and Non-Interest Income Activities in the Indonesian Banking Industry," Working Papers EMS_2012_03, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
  3. Randall S. Kroszner & Philip E. Strahan, 2013. "Regulation and Deregulation of the U.S. Banking Industry: Causes, Consequences and Implications for the Future," NBER Chapters, in: Economic Regulation and Its Reform: What Have We Learned? National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. O. De Jonghe, 2009. "Back to the Basics in Banking? A Micro-Analysis of Banking System Stability," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 09/579, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  5. De Jonghe, O.G., 2009. "Back to Basics in Banking? A Micro-Analysis of Banking System Stability," Discussion Paper 2009-45 S, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  6. Mälkönen , Ville, 2004. "Capital adequacy regulation and financial conglomerates," Research Discussion Papers 10/2004, Bank of Finland.
  7. Gonzalez, Francisco, 2005. "Bank regulation and risk-taking incentives: An international comparison of bank risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1153-1184, May.
  8. Narayanan, Rajesh P. & Rangan, Nanda K. & Sundaram, Sridhar, 2002. "Welfare effects of expanding banking organization opportunities in the securities arena," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 505-527.
  9. Lepetit, Laetitia & Nys, Emmanuelle & Rous, Philippe & Tarazi, Amine, 2008. "Bank income structure and risk: An empirical analysis of European banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1452-1467, August.
  10. Yoram Landskroner & David Ruthenberg & David Zaken, 2005. "Diversification and Performance in Banking: The Israeli Case," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 27-49, February.
  11. Simon Kwan, 2004. "Banking consolidation," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue jun18.
  12. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2013. "The change in banks' product mix, diversification and performance: An application of multivariate GARCH to Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp012013, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
  13. L. Baele & R. Vander Vennet & A. Van Landschoot, 2004. "Bank Risk Strategies and Cyclical Variation in Bank Stock Returns," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/217, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  14. Neale, Faith R. & Peterson, Pamela P., 2005. "The effect of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act on the insurance industry," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(4), pages 317-338.
  15. Carow, Kenneth A. & Kane, Edward J., 2002. "Event-study evidence of the value of relaxing long-standing regulatory restraints on banks, 1970-2000," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 439-463.
  16. James R. Barth & R. Dan Brumbaugh & James A. Wilcox, 2000. "Policy Watch: The Repeal of Glass-Steagall and the Advent of Broad Banking," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 191-204, Spring.
  17. Baele, Lieven & De Jonghe, Olivier & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2007. "Does the stock market value bank diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1999-2023, July.
  18. Olivier De Jonghe, 2008. "The impact of revenue diversity on banking system stability," EIEF Working Papers Series 0815, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Jul 2008.
  19. Barth, James R. & Caprio, Gerard & Levine, Ross, 2000. "Banking systems around the globe : do regulation and ownership affect the performance and stability?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2325, The World Bank.
  20. Laetitia Lepetit & Emmanuelle Nys & Philippe Rous & Amine Tarazi, 2005. "Product Diversification in the European Banking Industry: Risk and Loan Pricing Implications," Working Papers hal-00918399, HAL.

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