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The choice of capital instruments

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Author Info

  • Larry D. Wall
  • Pamela P. Peterson

Abstract

A system of bank supervision and regulation should protect taxpayers and the financial system without imposing unnecessary costs on banks. This article focuses on whether existing capital regulations, one of the primary tools of bank supervision and regulation, are imposing unnecessary costs on banks. In particular, the capital requirements may be requiring banks to issue equity when it would be less costly for them to issue subordinated debt. ; The authors obtain evidence on the costs generated by equity issues by examining the type of capital banks issued in response to the capital guidelines of the 1980s, which included a type of debt in capital. The findings suggest that banks prefer to avoid issuing common equity, especially when the ratio of the market price of their stock to its book value is less than one. The results suggest that the option to substitute debt for equity in meeting the capital standards is especially valuable for banks with low market values. The results also suggest that the ability to issue debt as a substitute for equity is more valuable to larger banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its journal Economic Review.

Volume (Year): (1998)
Issue (Month): Q 2 ()
Pages: 4-17

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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedaer:y:1998:i:q2:p:4-17:n:v.83no.2

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Related research

Keywords: Bank capital ; Bank supervision ; Banks and banking - Ratio analysis;

References

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  1. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 1997. "How well capitalized are well-capitalized banks?," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Sep, pages 41-50.
  2. Kraus, Alan & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1973. "A State-Preference Model of Optimal Financial Leverage," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 28(4), pages 911-22, September.
  3. Orgler, Yair E & Taggart, Robert A, Jr, 1983. "Implications of Corporate Capital Structure Theory for Banking Institutions: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 15(2), pages 212-21, May.
  4. DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W, 1980. " Leverage and Dividend Irrelevancy under Corporate and Personal Taxation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(2), pages 453-64, May.
  5. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 1994. "Bank managers' objectives," Working Papers 94-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  6. Masulis, Ronald W. & Trueman, Brett, 1988. "Corporate Investment and Dividend Decisions under Differential Personal Taxation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(04), pages 369-385, December.
  7. Shrieves, Ronald E. & Dahl, Drew, 1992. "The relationship between risk and capital in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 439-457, April.
  8. Douglas D. Evanoff, 1992. "Preferred sources of market discipline: depositors vs. subordinated debt holders," Working Paper Series, Issues in Financial Regulation 92-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  9. Yair E. Orgler & Robert A. Taggart, Jr., 1981. "Implications of Corporate Capital Structure Theory for Banking Institutions," NBER Working Papers 0737, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Flannery, Mark J, 1994. "Debt Maturity and the Deadweight Cost of Leverage: Optimally Financing Banking Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 320-31, March.
  11. David Jones & John Mingo, 1998. "Industry practices in credit risk modeling and internal capital allocations: implications for a models-based regulatory capital standard," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 53-60.
  12. Marsh, Paul, 1982. " The Choice between Equity and Debt: An Empirical Study," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(1), pages 121-44, March.
  13. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  14. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  15. Miller, Merton H., 1995. "Do the M & M propositions apply to banks?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 483-489, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. A. Lanzavecchia & L. Poletti, 2005. "Social and alternative banking: project selection and monitoring after the New Basel Capital Accord," Economics Department Working Papers 2005-EF01, Department of Economics, Parma University (Italy).
  2. Lee, Jae Ha & Stock, Duane R., 2000. "Embedded options and interest rate risk for insurance companies, banks and other financial institutions," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 169-187.

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