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Options and volatility

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  • Peter A. Abken
  • Saikat Nandi
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    Abstract

    Because volatility of the underlying asset price is a critical factor affecting option prices and hedge ratios, the modeling of volatility and its dynamics is of vital interest to traders, investors, and risk managers. This modeling is a difficult task because the path of volatility during the life of an option is highly unpredictable. There has been a proliferation of volatility specifications since the original, simple constant-volatility assumption of the famous Black and Scholes option pricing model. This article gives an overview of different specifications of asset price volatility that are widely used in option pricing models. ; While the authors cite evidence that some stochastic-volatility option pricing models provide better market prices and hedges than the Black-Scholes model, they acknowledge that for both academic researchers and market practitioners, no consensus exists regarding the best specification of volatility for option pricing. Although a number of alternative approaches can account, at least partially, for the pricing deficiencies of the Black-Scholes models, none dominates as a clearly superior approach for pricing options.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its journal Economic Review.

    Volume (Year): (1996)
    Issue (Month): Dec ()
    Pages: 21-35

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    Handle: RePEc:fip:fedaer:y:1996:i:dec:p:21-35:n:v.81no3-6

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    Related research

    Keywords: Options (Finance);

    References

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    1. Tim Bollerslev, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
    2. Lamoureux, Christopher G & Lastrapes, William D, 1993. "Forecasting Stock-Return Variance: Toward an Understanding of Stochastic Implied Volatilities," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(2), pages 293-326.
    3. Barone-Adesi, Giovanni & Whaley, Robert E, 1987. " Efficient Analytic Approximation of American Option Values," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 301-20, June.
    4. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
    5. Duffie, J Darrell & Huang, Chi-fu, 1985. "Implementing Arrow-Debreu Equilibria by Continuous Trading of Few Long-lived Securities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1337-56, November.
    6. Hull, John C & White, Alan D, 1987. " The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 281-300, June.
    7. Yacine Ait-Sahalia & Andrew W. Lo, 1995. "Nonparametric Estimation of State-Price Densities Implicit in Financial Asset Prices," NBER Working Papers 5351, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Engle, Robert F & Ng, Victor K, 1993. " Measuring and Testing the Impact of News on Volatility," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1749-78, December.
    9. Harrison, J. Michael & Pliska, Stanley R., 1981. "Martingales and stochastic integrals in the theory of continuous trading," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 215-260, August.
    10. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The valuation of options for alternative stochastic processes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 145-166.
    11. Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
    12. Engle, Robert F. & Mustafa, Chowdhury, 1992. "Implied ARCH models from options prices," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 289-311.
    13. Bernard Dumas & Jeff Fleming & Robert E. Whaley, 1996. "Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests," NBER Working Papers 5500, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Dumas, Bernard J & Fleming, Jeff & Whaley, Robert E, 1996. "Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests," CEPR Discussion Papers 1369, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. David G. Hobson & L. C. G. Rogers, 1998. "Complete Models with Stochastic Volatility," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1), pages 27-48.
    16. Peter A. Abken, 1994. "Over-the-counter financial derivatives: risky business?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Mar, pages 1-22.
    17. Angelo Melino & Stuart M. Turnbull, 1991. "The Pricing of Foreign Currency Options," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 24(2), pages 251-81, May.
    18. Scott, Louis O., 1987. "Option Pricing when the Variance Changes Randomly: Theory, Estimation, and an Application," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(04), pages 419-438, December.
    19. Heston, Steven L, 1993. "A Closed-Form Solution for Options with Stochastic Volatility with Applications to Bond and Currency Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(2), pages 327-43.
    20. Saikat Nandi, 1996. "Pricing and hedging index options under stochastic volatility: an empirical examination," Working Paper 96-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    21. Benoit Mandelbrot, 1963. "The Variation of Certain Speculative Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36, pages 394.
    22. Back, Kerry, 1993. "Asymmetric Information and Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(3), pages 435-72.
    23. Amin, Kaushik I. & Morton, Andrew J., 1994. "Implied volatility functions in arbitrage-free term structure models," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 141-180, April.
    24. Stein, Elias M & Stein, Jeremy C, 1991. "Stock Price Distributions with Stochastic Volatility: An Analytic Approach," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 4(4), pages 727-52.
    25. Peter A. Abken & Hugh Cohen, 1994. "Generalized method of moments estimation of Heath-Jarrow-Morton models of interest-rate contingent claims," Working Paper 94-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    26. Jin-Chuan Duan, 1995. "The Garch Option Pricing Model," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 13-32.
    27. Peter A. Abken & Dilip B. Madan & Sailesh Ramamurtie, 1996. "Estimation of risk-neutral and statistical densities by Hermite polynomial approximation: with an application to Eurodollar futures options," Working Paper 96-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
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    Cited by:
    1. Lehar, Alfred & Scheicher, Martin & Schittenkopf, Christian, 2002. "GARCH vs. stochastic volatility: Option pricing and risk management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 323-345, March.

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