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A closed-form GARCH option pricing model

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  • Steven L. Heston
  • Saikat Nandi
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    Abstract

    This paper develops a closed-form option pricing formula for a spot asset whose variance follows a GARCH process. The model allows for correlation between returns of the spot asset and variance and also admits multiple lags in the dynamics of the GARCH process. The single-factor (one-lag) version of this model contains Heston's (1993) stochastic volatility model as a diffusion limit and therefore unifies the discrete-time GARCH and continuous-time stochastic volatility literature of option pricing. The new model provides the first readily computed option formula for a random volatility model in which current volatility is easily estimated from historical asset prices observed at discrete intervals. Empirical analysis on S&P 500 index options shows the single-factor version of the GARCH model to be a substantial improvement over the Black-Scholes (1973) model. The GARCH model continues to substantially outperform the Black-Scholes model even when the Black-Scholes model is updated every period and uses implied volatilities from option prices, while the parameters of the GARCH model are held constant and volatility is filtered from the history of asset prices. The improvement is due largely to the ability of the GARCH model to describe the correlation of volatility with spot returns. This allows the GARCH model to capture strike-price biases in the Black-Scholes model that give rise to the skew in implied volatilities in the index options market.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta in its series Working Paper with number 97-9.

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    Date of creation: 1997
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    Publication status: Published in Review of Financial Studies, Fall 2000
    Handle: RePEc:fip:fedawp:97-9

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    Related research

    Keywords: Econometric models ; Financial markets ; Options (Finance) ; Prices;

    References

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    1. Vasicek, Oldrich, 1977. "An equilibrium characterization of the term structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 177-188, November.
    2. Bernard Dumas & Jeff Fleming & Robert E. Whaley, 1996. "Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests," NBER Working Papers 5500, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Rubinstein, Mark, 1994. " Implied Binomial Trees," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(3), pages 771-818, July.
    4. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The valuation of options for alternative stochastic processes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 145-166.
    5. Charles Quanwei Cao & Gurdip S. Bakshi & Zhiwu Chen, 1997. "Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm65, Yale School of Management.
    6. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
    7. Cox, John C & Ingersoll, Jonathan E, Jr & Ross, Stephen A, 1985. "A Theory of the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 385-407, March.
    8. Saikat Nandi, 1996. "Pricing and hedging index options under stochastic volatility: an empirical examination," Working Paper 96-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    9. Jin-Chuan Duan, 1995. "The Garch Option Pricing Model," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 13-32.
    10. Bakshi, Gurdip & Cao, Charles & Chen, Zhiwu, 1997. " Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 2003-49, December.
    11. Robert F. Engle & Victor K. Ng, 1991. "Measuring and Testing the Impact of News on Volatility," NBER Working Papers 3681, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    13. Nelson, Daniel B, 1991. "Conditional Heteroskedasticity in Asset Returns: A New Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 347-70, March.
    14. Breeden, Douglas T & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1978. "Prices of State-contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 621-51, October.
    15. Melino, Angelo & Turnbull, Stuart M., 1990. "Pricing foreign currency options with stochastic volatility," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1-2), pages 239-265.
    16. Mark Rubinstein, 1976. "The Valuation of Uncertain Income Streams and the Pricing of Options," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 7(2), pages 407-425, Autumn.
    17. Heston, Steven L, 1993. "A Closed-Form Solution for Options with Stochastic Volatility with Applications to Bond and Currency Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(2), pages 327-43.
    18. Dumas, Bernard J & Fleming, Jeff & Whaley, Robert E, 1996. "Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests," CEPR Discussion Papers 1369, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    19. Charles Quanwei Cao & Gurdip S. Bakshi & Zhiwu Chen, 1997. "Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm54, Yale School of Management.
    20. Christie, Andrew A., 1982. "The stochastic behavior of common stock variances : Value, leverage and interest rate effects," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 407-432, December.
    21. Engle, Robert F. & Mustafa, Chowdhury, 1992. "Implied ARCH models from options prices," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 289-311.
    22. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    23. Brennan, M J, 1979. "The Pricing of Contingent Claims in Discrete Time Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 53-68, March.
    24. Mark Rubinstein., 1994. "Implied Binomial Trees," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-232, University of California at Berkeley.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Gondzio, Jacek & Kouwenberg, Roy & Vorst, Ton, 2003. "Hedging options under transaction costs and stochastic volatility," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1045-1068, April.
    2. Duan, Jin-Chuan & Simonato, Jean-Guy, 2001. "American option pricing under GARCH by a Markov chain approximation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(11), pages 1689-1718, November.
    3. Capelle-Blancard, Gunther & Jurczenko, Emmanuel & Maillet, Bertrand, 2001. "The approximate option pricing model: performances and dynamic properties," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(4-5), pages 427-443, December.
    4. Vázquez, Miguel & Sánchez-Úbeda, Eugenio F. & Berzosa, Ana & Barquín, Julián, 2008. "Short-term evolution of forward curves and volatility in illiquid power market," MPRA Paper 8932, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised May 2008.
    5. Duan, Jin-Chuan & Yu, Min-Teh, 1999. "Capital standard, forbearance and deposit insurance pricing under GARCH," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(11), pages 1691-1706, November.
    6. S. K. Bhaumik & D. Coondoo, 2003. "Econometrics of yield spreads in the money market: a note," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(9), pages 645-653.

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