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On the macroscopic stability of freeway traffic

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  • Daganzo, Carlos F.
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    Abstract

    A simple model of traffic flow is used to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of flow and density on closed-loop homogeneous freeways with many ramps, which produce inflows and allow outflows. As we would expect, if the on-ramp demand is space-independent then this distribution tends toward uniformity in space if the freeway is either: (i) uncongested; or (ii) congested with queues on its on-ramps and enough inflow to cause the average freeway density to increase with time. In all other cases, however, including any recovery phase of a rush hour where the freeway's average density declines, the distribution of flow and density quickly becomes uneven. This happens even under conditions of perfect symmetry, where the percentage of vehicles exiting at every off ramp is the same. The flow-density deviations from the average are shown to grow exponentially in time and propagate backwards in space with a fixed wave speed. A consequence of this type of instability is that, during recovery, gaps of uncongested traffic will quickly appear in the unevenly congested stream, reducing average flow. This extends the duration of recovery and invariably creates clockwise hysteresis loops on scatter-plots of average system flow vs. density during any rush hour that oversaturates the freeway. All these effects are quantified with formulas and verified with simulations. Some have been observed in real networks. In a more practical vein, it is also shown that the negative effects of instability diminish (i.e., freeway flows increase) if (a) some drivers choose to exit the freeway prematurely when it is too congested and/or (b) freeway access is regulated in a certain traffic-responsive way. These two findings could be used to improve the algorithms behind VMS displays for driver guidance (finding a), and on-ramp metering rates (finding b).

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part B: Methodological.

    Volume (Year): 45 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 5 (June)
    Pages: 782-788

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:45:y:2011:i:5:p:782-788

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    Keywords: Freeway traffic Traffic instability Macroscopic fundamental diagram Hysteresis;

    References

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Laval, Jorge A. & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2006. "Lane-changing in traffic streams," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 251-264, March.
    2. Cassidy, Michael J. & Bertini, Robert L., 1999. "Some traffic features at freeway bottlenecks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 25-42, February.
    3. Olszewski, Piotr & Fan, Henry S. L. & Tan, Yan-Weng, 1995. "Area-wide traffic speed-flow model for the Singapore CBD," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 273-281, July.
    4. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2008. "Existence of urban-scale macroscopic fundamental diagrams: Some experimental findings," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 759-770, November.
    5. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2007. "Urban gridlock: Macroscopic modeling and mitigation approaches," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 49-62, January.
    6. Daganzo, Carlos F., 1995. "The cell transmission model, part II: Network traffic," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 79-93, April.
    7. Daganzo, Carlos F. & Gayah, Vikash V. & Gonzales, Eric J., 2011. "Macroscopic relations of urban traffic variables: Bifurcations, multivaluedness and instability," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 278-288, January.
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    Cited by:
    1. Jin, Wen-Long & Gan, Qi-Jian & Gayah, Vikash V., 2013. "A kinematic wave approach to traffic statics and dynamics in a double-ring network," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 114-131.

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