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Hysteresis phenomena of a Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram in freeway networks

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  • Geroliminis, Nikolas
  • Sun, Jie
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    Abstract

    Observations of traffic pairs of flow vs. density or occupancy for individual locations in freeways or arterials are usually scattered about an underlying curve. Recent observations from empirical data in arterial networks showed that in some cases by aggregating the highly scattered plots of flow vs. density from individual loop detectors, the scatter almost disappears and well-defined macroscopic relations exist between space-mean network flow and network density. Despite these findings for the existence of well-defined relations with low scatter, these curves should not be universal. In this paper we investigate if well-defined macroscopic relations exist for freeway network systems, by analyzing real data from Minnesota's freeways. We show that freeway network systems not only have curves with high scatter, but they also exhibit hysteresis phenomena, where higher network flows are observed for the same average network density in the onset and lower in the offset of congestion. The mechanisms of traffic hysteresis phenomena at the network level are analyzed in this paper and they have dissimilarities to the causes of the hysteresis phenomena at the micro/meso level. The explanation of the phenomenon is dual. The first reason is that there are different spatial and temporal distributions of congestion for the same level of average density. Another reason is the synchronized occurrence of transitions from individual detectors during the offset of the peak period, with points remain beneath the equilibrium curve. Both the hysteresis phenomenon and its causes are consistently observed for different spatial aggregations of the network.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.

    Volume (Year): 45 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 9 (November)
    Pages: 966-979

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:45:y:2011:i:9:p:966-979

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    Related research

    Keywords: Freeways Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram Traffic hysteresis Congestion;

    References

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    1. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2007. "Urban gridlock: Macroscopic modeling and mitigation approaches," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 49-62, January.
    2. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2008. "Existence of urban-scale macroscopic fundamental diagrams: Some experimental findings," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 759-770, November.
    3. Daganzo, Carlos F. & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2008. "An analytical approximation for the macroscopic fundamental diagram of urban traffic," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 771-781, November.
    4. D. Helbing & M. Treiber & A. Kesting & M. Sch├Ânhof, 2009. "Theoretical vs. empirical classification and prediction of congested traffic states," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 69(4), pages 583-598, June.
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    6. Cassidy, Michael J. & Bertini, Robert L., 1999. "Some traffic features at freeway bottlenecks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 25-42, February.
    7. Daganzo, Carlos F. & Gayah, Vikash V. & Gonzales, Eric J., 2011. "Macroscopic relations of urban traffic variables: Bifurcations, multivaluedness and instability," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 278-288, January.
    8. Laval, Jorge A. & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2006. "Lane-changing in traffic streams," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 251-264, March.
    9. Cassidy, Michael J., 1998. "Bivariate relations in nearly stationary highway traffic," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 49-59, January.
    10. Olszewski, Piotr & Fan, Henry S. L. & Tan, Yan-Weng, 1995. "Area-wide traffic speed-flow model for the Singapore CBD," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 273-281, July.
    11. Zhang, H. M., 1999. "A mathematical theory of traffic hysteresis," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 1-23, February.
    12. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Sun, Jie, 2011. "Properties of a well-defined macroscopic fundamental diagram for urban traffic," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 605-617, March.
    13. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2002. "A behavioral theory of multi-lane traffic flow. Part I: Long homogeneous freeway sections," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 131-158, February.
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    Cited by:
    1. Jin, Wen-Long & Gan, Qi-Jian & Gayah, Vikash V., 2013. "A kinematic wave approach to traffic statics and dynamics in a double-ring network," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 114-131.
    2. Haddad, Jack & Ramezani, Mohsen & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2013. "Cooperative traffic control of a mixed network with two urban regions and a freeway," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 17-36.
    3. Zhang, Lele & Garoni, Timothy M & de Gier, Jan, 2013. "A comparative study of Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams of arterial road networks governed by adaptive traffic signal systems," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 1-23.
    4. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Boyac─▒, Burak, 2012. "The effect of variability of urban systems characteristics in the network capacity," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1607-1623.
    5. Zheng, Nan & Waraich, Rashid A. & Axhausen, Kay W. & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2012. "A dynamic cordon pricing scheme combining the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram and an agent-based traffic model," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1291-1303.

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