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Measuring post-disaster transportation system performance: the 1995 Kobe earthquake in comparative perspective

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  • Chang, Stephanie E.
  • Nojima, Nobuoto
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    Abstract

    Recent earthquake disasters have caused major damage to transportation networks, leading to significant economic disruption. While this suggests the need to evaluate total system performance in transportation risk assessment, in addition to examining the vulnerability of individual components such as bridges, no appropriate measures currently exist. This paper develops post-disaster system performance measures and applies them to the urban rail and highway transportation systems in the Kobe, Japan, region devastated by the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. Performance is evaluated in terms of network coverage and transport accessibility. Performance degradation was much more severe for highways and railways than for other lifeline infrastructure systems. Both transportation systems fared poorly in the disaster but service restoration proceeded much more rapidly for rail. The restoration of highway system performance correlated closely with the recovery of highway traffic volumes. The paper further develops a measure of subarea transport accessibility and applies this to Kobe's constituent city wards. Results indicate substantial spatial disparity that is maintained throughout the restoration period. Comparisons with the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge earthquakes in the US show that although these disasters caused notable damage to highway bridges, system performance degradation was small in comparison with the Kobe experience. The paper argues that explicitly measuring transportation system performance can greatly facilitate both understanding the effects of historic disasters and preparing for future hazard events.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.

    Volume (Year): 35 (2001)
    Issue (Month): 6 (July)
    Pages: 475-494

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:35:y:2001:i:6:p:475-494

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    1. G H Pirie, 1979. "Measuring accessibility: a review and proposal," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 11(3), pages 299-312, March.
    2. F Bruinsma & P Rietveld, 1998. "The accessibility of European cities: theoretical framework and comparison of approaches," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 30(3), pages 499-521, March.
    3. Pooler, James A., 1995. "The use of spatial separation in the measurement of transportation accessibility," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 421-427, November.
    4. Allen, W. Bruce & Liu, Dong & Singer, Scott, 1993. "Accesibility measures of U.S. metropolitan areas," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 439-449, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Sohn, Jungyul, 2006. "Evaluating the significance of highway network links under the flood damage: An accessibility approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 491-506, July.
    2. Holguín-Veras, José & Jaller, Miguel & Wachtendorf, Tricia, 2012. "Comparative performance of alternative humanitarian logistic structures after the Port-au-Prince earthquake: ACEs, PIEs, and CANs," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1623-1640.
    3. Zhu, Shanjiang & Levinson, David & Liu, Henry X. & Harder, Kathleen, 2010. "The traffic and behavioral effects of the I-35W Mississippi River bridge collapse," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 771-784, December.
    4. Tuzun Aksu, Dilek & Ozdamar, Linet, 2014. "A mathematical model for post-disaster road restoration: Enabling accessibility and evacuation," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 56-67.

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