Patterns of automobile dependence in cities: an international overview of key physical and economic dimensions with some implications for urban policy
AbstractAutomobile dependence, expressed through comparative levels of car ownership and use and transit service and use, varies widely and systematically across a large sample of international cities. US cities exhibit the most extreme dependence on the automobile, followed by Australian and Canadian cities, with European and Asian cities having very much more transit-oriented cities with greater levels of walking and cycling. These patterns are not strongly related to differences in wealth between cities, but do vary in a clear and systematic way with land use patterns. The total fixed and variable cost of cars per kilometre is also significantly related to the degree of automobile dependence in cities, though not as strongly as land use. The data suggest that the most auto-dependent cities are less wealthy than some other more transit-oriented cities. They have the worst operating cost recovery in transit, have far higher road construction and maintenance costs, spend the highest proportion of their wealth on passenger transportation but have roughly similar journey-to-work trip times and much longer trip lengths. These patterns suggest some important policy implications which stress the need to strategically reshape urban land use, to emphasise investment in non-auto infrastructure and to ensure that any physical planning strategies aimed at reducing automobile dependence work in concert with economic policies directed at increasing the real cost of both car ownership and car use.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.
Volume (Year): 33 (1999)
Issue (Month): 7-8 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/547/description#description
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Summers, Robert & Heston, Alan, 1988. "A New Set of International Comparisons of Real Product and Price Levels Estimates for 130 Countries, 1950-1985," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 34(1), pages 1-25, March.
- Lave, Charles, 1992. "Cars and Demographics," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1344j99t, University of California Transportation Center.
- Hansen, Mark & Huang, Yuanlin, 1997. "Road supply and traffic in California urban areas," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 205-218, May.
- Phang, Sock-Yong, 1993. "Singapore's motor vehicle policy: Review of recent changes and a suggested alternative," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 329-336, July.
- Goodwin, Phil, 1994. "Traffic reduction," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 83-84, March.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.