The complexity and robustness of metro networks
AbstractTransportation systems, being real-life examples of networks, are particularly interesting to analyze from the viewpoint of the new and rapidly emerging field of network science. Two particular concepts seem to be particularly relevant: scale-free patterns and small-worlds. By looking at 33 metro systems in the world, this paper adapts network science methodologies to the transportation literature, and offers one application to the robustness of metros; here, metro refers to urban rail transit with exclusive right-of-way, whether it is underground, at grade or elevated. We find that most metros are indeed scale-free (with scaling factors ranging from 2.10 to 5.52) and small-worlds; they show atypical behaviors, however, with increasing size. In particular, the presence of transfer-hubs (stations hosting more than three lines) results in relatively large scaling factors. The analysis provides insights/recommendations for increasing the robustness of metro networks. Smaller networks should focus on creating transfer stations, thus generating cycles to offer alternative routes. For larger networks, few stations seem to detain a certain monopole on transferring, it is therefore important to create additional transfers, possibly at the periphery of city centers; the Tokyo system seems to remarkably incorporate these properties.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.
Volume (Year): 389 (2010)
Issue (Month): 17 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/physica-a-statistical-mechpplications/
Metro; Public transportation; Network; Graph theory; Scale-free; Small-world; Robustness;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Feng Xie & David Levinson, 2007.
"Modeling the Growth of Transportation Networks: A comprehensive review,"
200907, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
- Feng Xie & David Levinson, 2009. "Modeling the Growth of Transportation Networks: A Comprehensive Review," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 291-307, September.
- B. Berche & C. von Ferber & T. Holovatch & Yu. Holovatch, 2009. "Resilience of public transport networks against attacks," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 71(1), pages 125-137, September.
- C. von Ferber & T. Holovatch & Yu. Holovatch & V. Palchykov, 2009. "Public transport networks: empirical analysis and modeling," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 68(2), pages 261-275, March.
- Sybil Derrible & Christopher Kennedy, 2010. "Characterizing metro networks: state, form, and structure," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 275-297, March.
- Latora, Vito & Marchiori, Massimo, 2002. "Is the Boston subway a small-world network?," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 314(1), pages 109-113.
- Angeloudis, Panagiotis & Fisk, David, 2006. "Large subway systems as complex networks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 367(C), pages 553-558.
- Li, W. & Cai, X., 2007. "Empirical analysis of a scale-free railway network in China," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 382(2), pages 693-703.
- M. Goldstein & S. Morris & G. Yen, 2004. "Problems with fitting to the power-law distribution," The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 255-258, 09.
- Xu, Xinping & Hu, Junhui & Liu, Feng & Liu, Lianshou, 2007. "Scaling and correlations in three bus-transport networks of China," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 374(1), pages 441-448.
- David Levinson & Bhanu Yerra, 2006. "Self Organization of Surface Transportation Networks," Working Papers 200603, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
- Seaton, Katherine A. & Hackett, Lisa M., 2004. "Stations, trains and small-world networks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 339(3), pages 635-644.
- Sun, H.J. & Wu, J.J. & Gao, Z.Y., 2008. "Dynamics of traffic networks: From microscopic and macroscopic perspectives," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(7), pages 1648-1654.
- Tadić, Bosiljka, 2001. "Dynamics of directed graphs: the world-wide Web," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 293(1), pages 273-284.
- Daganzo, Carlos F., 2010. "Structure of competitive transit networks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 434-446, May.
- von Ferber, C. & Holovatch, T. & Holovatch, Yu. & Palchykov, V., 2007. "Network harness: Metropolis public transport," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 380(C), pages 585-591.
- Zhang, Jianhua & Zhao, Mingwei & Liu, Haikuan & Xu, Xiaoming, 2013. "Networked characteristics of the urban rail transit networks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(6), pages 1538-1546.
- David Levinson, 2011. "Network Structure and City Size," Working Papers 000094, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
- Zhang, Jianhua & Xu, Xiaoming & Hong, Liu & Wang, Shuliang & Fei, Qi, 2011. "Networked analysis of the Shanghai subway network, in China," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(23), pages 4562-4570.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.