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Hardened Budgets and Enterprise Restructuring: Theory and an Application to Romania

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  • Coricelli, Fabrizio
  • Djankov, Simeon

Abstract

We identify the presence of soft budgets and analyse their impact on enterprise restructuring in Romania over the initial transition period. A simple analytical framework is developed to show that hardened budget constraints foster rationalization of costs, but not active restructuring. The latter requires availability of external financing. The model emphasises the importance of the credibility of hard budgets. The empirical findings are consistent with the predictions of the model. Using a sample of over 4,000 Romanian enterprises during 1992-95, we show that hardened budget constraints induce labour shedding. There is no evidence of positive effects on active restructuring, which we define as new investments.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Comparative Economics.

Volume (Year): 29 (2001)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
Pages: 749-763

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jcecon:v:29:y:2001:i:4:p:749-763

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622864

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References

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  1. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon, 1999. "Enterprise performance and management turnover in the Czech Republic," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 1115-1124, April.
  2. Groves, Theodore & Yongmiao Hong & John McMillan & Barry Naughton, 1995. "China's Evolving Managerial Labor Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(4), pages 873-92, August.
  3. Simeon Djankov & Peter Murrell, 2002. "Enterprise Restructuring in Transition: A Quantitative Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(3), pages 739-792, September.
  4. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon, 1998. "Politicians and firms in seven central and eastern European countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1954, The World Bank.
  5. Anderson, James H. & Korsun, Georges & Murrell, Peter, 2000. "Which Enterprises (Believe They) Have Soft Budgets? Evidence on the Effects of Ownership and Decentralization in Mongolia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 219-246, June.
  6. Roman Frydman & Cheryl Gray & Marek Hessel & Andrzej Rapaczynski, 1999. "When Does Privatization Work? The Impact Of Private Ownership On Corporate Performance In The Transition Economies," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(4), pages 1153-1191, November.
  7. Djankov, Simeon, 1999. "The Enterprise Isolation Program in Romania," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 281-293, June.
  8. Eric S. Maskin, 1999. "Recent Theoretical Work on the Soft Budget Constraint," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 421-425, May.
  9. Kornai, Janos, 1998. "The Concept of the Soft Budget Constraint Syndrome in Economic Theory," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 11-17, March.
  10. Li, David D. & Liang, Minsong, 1998. "Causes of the Soft Budget Constraint: Evidence on Three Explanations," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 104-116, March.
  11. Schaffer, Mark E., 1998. "Do Firms in Transition Economies Have Soft Budget Constraints? A Reconsideration of Concepts and Evidence," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 80-103, March.
  12. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1994. "Politicians and Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 995-1025, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Herbert Brücker & Philipp J. H. Schröder & Christian Weise, 2003. "Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 375, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  2. Sinani, Evis & Meyer, Klaus E., 2004. "Spillovers of technology transfer from FDI: the case of Estonia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 445-466, September.
  3. Rizov, Marian, 2005. "Transition and enterprise restructuring: the role of budget constraints and bankruptcy costs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 129-134, January.
  4. Kornai, János & Maskin, Eric & Roland, Gérard, 2004. "A puha költségvetési korlát I
    [The soft budget constraint I]
    ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(7), pages 608-624.
  5. Toyofuku, Kenta, 2013. "Stability or restructuring? Macroeconomic dynamics under soft budget constraint problems," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 625-649.
  6. J�nos Kornai & Eric Maskin & G�rard Roland, 2003. "Understanding the Soft Budget Constraint," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1095-1136, December.
  7. Murrell, Peter, 2003. "Firms facing new institutions: transactional governance in Romania," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 695-714, December.
  8. Asaftei, Gabriel & Kumbhakar, Subal C. & Mantescu, Dorin, 2008. "Ownership, business environment and productivity change," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 498-509, September.
  9. Changlin Luo, 2014. "Questioning the Soft Budget Constraint," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 15(1), pages 403-412, May.
  10. Celine Bignebat & Fabian Gouret, 2008. "Determinants and consequences of soft budget constraints: an empirical analysis using enterprise-level data in transition countries," Working Papers 23842, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
  11. Rizov, Marian, 2004. "Shift To Individual Farming And The Productivity Growth Of Transition Agriculture," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20116, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  12. Desai, Raj M. & Olofsgard, Anders, 2006. "The political advantage of soft budget constraints," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 370-387, June.
  13. Megginson, William L., 2005. "The economics of bank privatization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(8-9), pages 1931-1980, August.
  14. Bignebat, C. & Gouret, F., 2006. "Which Firms Have a Soft Loan ? Managers' Believes in a Cross-Country Survey in Transition Economies," Working Papers MOISA 200603, UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD - Montpellier, France.
  15. Druk-Gal, Bat-Sheva & Yaari, Varda, 2006. "Incumbent employees' resistance to implementing privatization policy," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 374-405, March.

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