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Bank size, lending technologies, and small business finance

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  • Berger, Allen N.
  • Black, Lamont K.
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    Abstract

    Under the current paradigm in small business lending research, large banks tend to specialize in lending to relatively large, informationally transparent firms using "hard" information, while small banks have advantages in lending to smaller, less transparent firms using "soft" information. We go beyond this paradigm to analyze the comparative advantages of large and small banks in specific lending technologies. Our analysis begins with the identification of fixed-asset lending technologies used to make small business loans. Our results suggest that large banks do not have equal advantages in all of these hard lending technologies and these advantages are not all increasing monotonically in firm size, contrary to the predictions of the current paradigm. We also analyze lines of credit without fixed-asset collateral to focus on relationship lending. We confirm that small banks have a comparative advantage in relationship lending, but this appears to be strongest for lending to the largest firms.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 35 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 3 (March)
    Pages: 724-735

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:35:y:2011:i:3:p:724-735

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

    Related research

    Keywords: Banks Lending technologies Relationship lending Small business;

    References

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    1. Berger, Allen N & Frame, W Scott & Miller, Nathan H, 2005. "Credit Scoring and the Availability, Price, and Risk of Small Business Credit," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(2), pages 191-222, April.
    2. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2656, The World Bank.
    3. Allen N. Berger & Marco A. Espinosa-Vega & W. Scott Frame & Nathan H. Miller, 2004. "Debt maturity, risk, and asymmetric information," Working Paper 2004-32, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    4. Masaji Kano & Hirofumi Uchida & Gregory F. Udell & Wako Watanabe, 2006. "Information Verifiability, Bank Organization, Bank Competition and Bank-Borrower Relationships," Discussion papers 06003, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    5. John, Kose & Lynch, Anthony W. & Puri, Manju, 2002. "Credit Ratings, Collateral and Loan Characteristics: Implications for Yield," Research Papers 1748, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    6. Jiménez, Gabriel & Salas, Vicente & Saurina, Jesús, 2009. "Organizational distance and use of collateral for business loans," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 234-243, February.
    7. Brick, Ivan E. & Palia, Darius, 2007. "Evidence of jointness in the terms of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 452-476, July.
    8. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2001. "Small business credit availability and relationship lending: the importance of bank organizational structure," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    9. de la Torre, Augusto & Martínez Pería, María Soledad & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2010. "Bank involvement with SMEs: Beyond relationship lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2280-2293, September.
    10. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & Rosen, Richard J. & Udell, Gregory F., 2007. "Does market size structure affect competition? The case of small business lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 11-33, January.
    12. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
    13. Frame, W Scott & Srinivasan, Aruna & Woosley, Lynn, 2001. "The Effect of Credit Scoring on Small-Business Lending," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 813-25, August.
    14. Andrea Eisfeldt & Adriano Rampini, 2006. "Leasing, Ability to Repossess, and Debt Capacity," 2006 Meeting Papers 461, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    15. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    16. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-81, July.
    17. Jose M. Liberti & Atif R. Mian, 2009. "Estimating the Effect of Hierarchies on Information Use," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(10), pages 4057-4090, October.
    18. Han, Liang & Fraser, Stuart & Storey, David J., 2009. "Are good or bad borrowers discouraged from applying for loans? Evidence from US small business credit markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 415-424, February.
    19. Jonathan Scott, 2004. "Small Business and the Value of Community Financial Institutions," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 207-230, April.
    20. Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Information Production and Capital Allocation: Decentralized versus Hierarchical Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1891-1921, October.
    21. Scott, Jonathan A. & Dunkelberg, William C., 2010. "Competition for small firm banking business: Bank actions versus market structure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2788-2800, November.
    22. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 2006. "A more complete conceptual framework for SME finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2945-2966, November.
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