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Are good or bad borrowers discouraged from applying for loans? Evidence from US small business credit markets

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  • Han, Liang
  • Fraser, Stuart
  • Storey, David J.
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    Abstract

    This paper takes the concept of a discouraged borrower originally formulated by Kon and Storey [Kon, Y., Storey, D.J., 2003. A theory of discouraged borrowers. Small Business Economics 21, 37-49] and examines whether discouragement is an efficient self-rationing mechanism. Using US data it finds riskier borrowers have higher probabilities of discouragement, which increase with longer financial relationships, suggesting discouragement is an efficient self-rationing mechanism. It also finds low risk borrowers are less likely to be discouraged in concentrated markets than in competitive markets and that, in concentrated markets, high risk borrowers are more likely to be discouraged the longer their financial relationships. We conclude discouragement is more efficient in concentrated, than in competitive, markets.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 33 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 2 (February)
    Pages: 415-424

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:33:y:2009:i:2:p:415-424

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

    Related research

    Keywords: Discouraged borrowers Self-rationing Information problem;

    References

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    1. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: the roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. Bolton, Patrick & Scharfstein, David S, 1996. "Optimal Debt Structure and the Number of Creditors," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(1), pages 1-25, February.
    3. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-55, September.
    4. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1994. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," NBER Working Papers 4921, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    7. Vos, Ed & Yeh, Andy Jia-Yuh & Carter, Sara & Tagg, Stephen, 2007. "The happy story of small business financing," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2648-2672, September.
    8. Hans Degryse & Partick Van cayseele, 1998. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Center for Economic Studies - Discussion papers ces9816, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën.
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    16. Booth, James R. & Booth, Lena Chua, 2006. "Loan Collateral Decisions and Corporate Borrowing Costs," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(1), pages 67-90, February.
    17. Enrica Detragiache & Paolo Garella & Luigi Guiso, 2000. "Multiple versus Single Banking Relationships: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1133-1161, 06.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Koji Sakai & Iichiro Uesugi & Tsutomu Watanabe, 2005. "Firm Age and the Evolution of Borrowing Costs: Evidence from Japanese Small Firms," Discussion papers 05026, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Canton, E.J.F. & Grilo, I. & Monteagudo, J. & van der Zwan, P.W., 2012. "Perceived credit constraints in the European Union," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2010-001-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
    3. Berger, Allen N. & Cerqueiro, Geraldo & Penas, María F., 2011. "Does debtor protection really protect debtors? Evidence from the small business credit market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1843-1857, July.
    4. Erik Canton & Isabel Grilo & Josefa Monteagudo & Peter Zwan, 2013. "Perceived credit constraints in the European Union," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 701-715, October.
    5. Bos, Marieke, 2012. "Accept or Reject: Do Immigrants Have Less Access to Bank Credit? Evidence from Swedish Pawnshop Customers," SULCIS Working Papers 2012:1, Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS.
    6. Behr, Patrick & Entzian, Annekathrin & Güttler, Andre, 2011. "How do lending relationships affect access to credit and loan conditions in microlending?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 2169-2178, August.
    7. Peter van der Zwan, 2014. "Bank loan application success by SMEs: the role of ownership structure and innovation," Scales Research Reports H201404, EIM Business and Policy Research.
    8. Masaji Kano & Hirofumi Uchida & Gregory F. Udell & Wako Watanabe, 2006. "Information Verifiability, Bank Organization, Bank Competition and Bank-Borrower Relationships," Discussion papers 06003, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    9. Mark Freel & Sara Carter & Stephen Tagg & Colin Mason, 2012. "The latent demand for bank debt: characterizing “discouraged borrowers”," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 399-418, May.
    10. Matjaž Volk & Polona Trefalt, 2014. "Access to Credit as a Growth Constraint," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 1(1), pages 29-39, May.
    11. Annie bellier & Wafa Sayeh & Stéphanie Serve, 2012. "What lies behind credit rationing? A survey of the literature," THEMA Working Papers 2012-39, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    12. Khandani, Amir E. & Kim, Adlar J. & Lo, Andrew W., 2010. "Consumer credit-risk models via machine-learning algorithms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2767-2787, November.
    13. Sohn, Wook, 2010. "Market response to bank relationships: Evidence from Korean bank reform," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2042-2055, September.
    14. Berger, Allen N. & Black, Lamont K., 2011. "Bank size, lending technologies, and small business finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 724-735, March.
    15. Nofsinger, John R. & Wang, Weicheng, 2011. "Determinants of start-up firm external financing worldwide," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2282-2294, September.

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