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The effect of mergers on credit union performance

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  • Bauer, Keldon J.
  • Miles, Linda L.
  • Nishikawa, Takeshi
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    Abstract

    The motivation for mergers in the credit union industry differs from the commercial bank industry due to the lack of residual claimants to benefit from wealth gains. In the cooperative ownership environment of credit unions, the owners/members gain utility via the rates offered for loans and deposits. Credit union regulators also gain utility when mergers remove risky credit unions from the industry. We measure these utility gains using the event study method of Bauer [Bauer, K., 2008. Detecting abnormal credit union performance. Journal of Banking and Finance 32, 573-586] employing quadrant tests based on a multivariate test of equality of centroids. We find gains to the owners/members of the target credit union and to the regulators but not to the acquiring firm. We posit that the acquiring credit unions may encounter regulatory pressure to merge. In addition, the owners/members of the acquiring firm may avoid potential disutility in the cooperative insurance environment were the target firm allowed to fail.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 33 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 12 (December)
    Pages: 2267-2274

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:33:y:2009:i:12:p:2267-2274

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

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    Keywords: Mergers Credit unions;

    References

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    1. Worthington, Andrew C., 2004. "Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in Australian cooperative deposit-taking institutions," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 47-57, January.
    2. Glenn Westley & Sherrill Shaffer, 1997. "Credit Union Policies and Performances in Latin America," Research Department Publications 4086, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    3. John Goddard & John O. S. Wilson, 2005. "US Credit Unions: An Empirical Investigation of Size, Age and Growth," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 76(3), pages 375-406, 09.
    4. Andrew C. Worthington, 2001. "Efficiency in pre-merger and post-merger non-bank financial institutions," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(8), pages 439-452.
    5. Scott Frame, W. & Karels, Gordon V. & McClatchey, Christine A., 2003. "Do credit unions use their tax advantage to benefit members? Evidence from a cost function," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 35-47.
    6. Brown, Christine & Davis, Kevin, 2009. "Capital management in mutual financial institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 443-455, March.
    7. Fried, Harold O. & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Eeckaut, Philippe Vanden, 1993. "Evaluating the performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 251-265, April.
    8. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Yaisawarng, Suthathip, 1999. "The impact of mergers on credit union service provision," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 367-386, February.
    9. Goddard, John & Molyneux, Philip & Wilson, John O.S. & Tavakoli, Manouche, 2007. "European banking: An overview," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1911-1935, July.
    10. Fried, H. O. & Knox Lovell, C. A., . "Enhancing the performance of credit unions: the evolution of a methodology," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1155, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    11. J. Colin Glass & Donal McKillop, 2006. "The impact of differing operating environments on US Credit Union Performance, 1993-2001," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(17), pages 1285-1300.
    12. Donal G. McKillop, 2005. "Financial Cooperatives: Structure, Conduct and Performance," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 76(3), pages 301-305, 09.
    13. Bauer, Keldon, 2008. "Detecting abnormal credit union performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 573-586, April.
    14. Koetter, M. & Bos, J.W.B. & Heid, F. & Kolari, J.W. & Kool, C.J.M. & Porath, D., 2007. "Accounting for distress in bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(10), pages 3200-3217, October.
    15. Ralston, Deborah & Wright, April & Garden, Kaylee, 2001. "Can mergers ensure the survival of credit unions in the third millennium?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2277-2304, December.
    16. Garden, Kaylee A. & Ralston, Deborah E., 1999. "The x-efficiency and allocative efficiency effects of credit union mergers," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 285-301, August.
    17. Goddard, John A. & McKillop, Donal G. & Wilson, John O. S., 2002. "The growth of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(12), pages 2327-2356.
    18. Goddard, John & McKillop, Donal & Wilson, John O.S., 2008. "The diversification and financial performance of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1836-1849, September.
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    Cited by:
    1. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2013. "The evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 75-88.
    2. Robert DeYoung & Douglas Evanoff & Philip Molyneux, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions of Financial Institutions: A Review of the Post-2000 Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 87-110, December.

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