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Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

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  • Sovacool, Benjamin K.
  • Brown, Marilyn A.
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    Abstract

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources--discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint--provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, São Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 38 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 4856-4869

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:9:p:4856-4869

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

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    Keywords: Carbon footprint Metropolitan areas Climate change;

    References

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    1. Weber, Christopher L. & Matthews, H. Scott, 2008. "Quantifying the global and distributional aspects of American household carbon footprint," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 379-391, June.
    2. Clinton Andrews, 2008. "Greenhouse gas emissions along the rural-urban gradient," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(6), pages 847-870.
    3. Pachauri, Shonali & Jiang, Leiwen, 2008. "The household energy transition in India and China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 4022-4035, November.
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    Cited by:
    1. Riikka Kyrö & Jukka Heinonen & Antti Säynäjoki & Seppo Junnila, 2012. "Assessing the Potential of Climate Change Mitigation Actions in Three Different City Types in Finland," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(7), pages 1510-1524, July.
    2. Li, J.S. & Chen, G.Q. & Lai, T.M. & Ahmad, B. & Chen, Z.M. & Shao, L. & Ji, Xi, 2013. "Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 819-833.
    3. Jukka Heinonen & Antti-Juhani Säynäjoki & Matti Kuronen & Seppo Junnila, 2012. "Are the Greenhouse Gas Implications of New Residential Developments Understood Wrongly?," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(8), pages 2874-2893, August.
    4. Keirstead, James, 2013. "Benchmarking urban energy efficiency in the UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 575-587.
    5. Dong, Huijuan & Geng, Yong & Xi, Fengming & Fujita, Tsuyoshi, 2013. "Carbon footprint evaluation at industrial park level: A hybrid life cycle assessment approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 298-307.
    6. Bi, Jun & Zhang, Rongrong & Wang, Haikun & Liu, Miaomiao & Wu, Yi, 2011. "The benchmarks of carbon emissions and policy implications for China's cities: Case of Nanjing," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4785-4794, September.
    7. Monni, S. & Syri, S., 2011. "Weekly greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities: Methods and comparisons," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4755-4765, September.
    8. Pasimeni, Maria Rita & Petrosillo, Irene & Aretano, Roberta & Semeraro, Teodoro & De Marco, Antonella & Zaccarelli, Nicola & Zurlini, Giovanni, 2014. "Scales, strategies and actions for effective energy planning: A review," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 165-174.
    9. Kramers, Anna & Wangel, Josefin & Johansson, Stefan & Höjer, Mattias & Finnveden, Göran & Brandt, Nils, 2013. "Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1276-1287.
    10. Rowangould, Dana & Eldridge, Melody & Niemeier, Deb, 2013. "Incorporating regional growth into forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions from project-level residential and commercial development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1288-1300.

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