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Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities

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Author Info

  • Kennedy, Christopher
  • Steinberger, Julia
  • Gasson, Barrie
  • Hansen, Yvonne
  • Hillman, Timothy
  • Havránek, Miroslav
  • Pataki, Diane
  • Phdungsilp, Aumnad
  • Ramaswami, Anu
  • Mendez, Gara Villalba
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V2W-4X6VB1R-3/2/7893668170308c372aaaa760c42aa4e1
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 38 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 4828-4837

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:9:p:4828-4837

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    Related research

    Keywords: Urban metabolism Life-cycle analysis Climate change;

    References

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    1. Tanatvanit, Somporn & Limmeechokchai, Bundit & Chungpaibulpatana, Supachart, 2003. "Sustainable energy development strategies: implications of energy demand management and renewable energy in Thailand," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 367-395, October.
    2. Pachauri, Shonali & Spreng, Daniel, 2002. "Direct and indirect energy requirements of households in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 511-523, May.
    3. Reinders, A. H. M. E. & Vringer, K. & Blok, K., 2003. "The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 139-153, January.
    4. Cohen, Claude & Lenzen, Manfred & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2005. "Energy requirements of households in Brazil," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 555-562, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Xi, Fengming & Geng, Yong & Chen, Xudong & Zhang, Yunsong & Wang, Xinbei & Xue, Bing & Dong, Huijuan & Liu, Zhu & Ren, Wanxia & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Zhu, Qinghua, 2011. "Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 5999-6010, October.
    2. Lazarus, Michael & Chandler, Chelsea & Erickson, Peter, 2013. "A core framework and scenario for deep GHG reductions at the city scale," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 563-574.
    3. Monni, S. & Syri, S., 2011. "Weekly greenhouse gas emissions of municipalities: Methods and comparisons," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4755-4765, September.
    4. Bi, Jun & Zhang, Rongrong & Wang, Haikun & Liu, Miaomiao & Wu, Yi, 2011. "The benchmarks of carbon emissions and policy implications for China's cities: Case of Nanjing," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4785-4794, September.
    5. Garren, S.J. & Pinjari, A.R. & Brinkmann, R., 2011. "Carbon dioxide emission trends in cars and light trucks: A comparative analysis of emissions and methodologies for Florida's counties (2000 and 2008)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5287-5295, September.
    6. Kennedy, Scott & Sgouridis, Sgouris, 2011. "Rigorous classification and carbon accounting principles for low and Zero Carbon Cities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5259-5268, September.
    7. Lin, Jianyi & Liu, Yuan & Meng, Fanxin & Cui, Shenghui & Xu, Lilai, 2013. "Using hybrid method to evaluate carbon footprint of Xiamen City, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 220-227.
    8. Baynes, Timothy & Lenzen, Manfred & Steinberger, Julia K. & Bai, Xuemei, 2011. "Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7298-7309.
    9. Wang, Yafei & Zhao, Hongyan & Li, Liying & Liu, Zhu & Liang, Sai, 2013. "Carbon dioxide emission drivers for a typical metropolis using input–output structural decomposition analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 312-318.
    10. Geng, Yuhuan & Tian, Mingzhong & Zhu, Qiuan & Zhang, Jianjun & Peng, Changhui, 2011. "Quantification of provincial-level carbon emissions from energy consumption in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(8), pages 3658-3668.
    11. Li, J.S. & Chen, G.Q. & Lai, T.M. & Ahmad, B. & Chen, Z.M. & Shao, L. & Ji, Xi, 2013. "Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 819-833.
    12. Golley, Jane & Meng, Xin, 2012. "Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Chinese urban households," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1864-1872.
    13. Kramers, Anna & Wangel, Josefin & Johansson, Stefan & Höjer, Mattias & Finnveden, Göran & Brandt, Nils, 2013. "Towards a comprehensive system of methodological considerations for cities' climate targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1276-1287.
    14. Villalba, Gara & Tarnay, Leland & Campbell, Elliott & Gabarrell, Xavier, 2013. "A life-cycle carbon footprint of Yosemite National Park," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1336-1343.
    15. Pasimeni, Maria Rita & Petrosillo, Irene & Aretano, Roberta & Semeraro, Teodoro & De Marco, Antonella & Zaccarelli, Nicola & Zurlini, Giovanni, 2014. "Scales, strategies and actions for effective energy planning: A review," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 165-174.

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