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The household energy transition in India and China

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  • Pachauri, Shonali
  • Jiang, Leiwen
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    Abstract

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 36 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 11 (November)
    Pages: 4022-4035

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:36:y:2008:i:11:p:4022-4035

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

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    Keywords: Household energy transition Biomass energy Energy access;

    References

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    Cited by:
    1. Doll, Christopher N.H. & Pachauri, Shonali, 2010. "Estimating rural populations without access to electricity in developing countries through night-time light satellite imagery," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5661-5670, October.
    2. Fang, Chung-Rou & You, Shih-Yi, 2014. "The impact of oil price shocks on the large emerging countries' stock prices: Evidence from China, India and Russia," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 330-338.
    3. Wang, Chengchao & Yang, Yusheng & Zhang, Yaoqi, 2012. "Rural household livelihood change, fuelwood substitution, and hilly ecosystem restoration: Evidence from China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 2475-2482.
    4. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Brown, Marilyn A., 2010. "Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 4856-4869, September.
    5. Hiloidhari, Moonmoon & Das, Dhiman & Baruah, D.C., 2014. "Bioenergy potential from crop residue biomass in India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 504-512.
    6. Takama, Takeshi & Tsephel, Stanzin & Johnson, Francis X., 2012. "Evaluating the relative strength of product-specific factors in fuel switching and stove choice decisions in Ethiopia. A discrete choice model of household preferences for clean cooking alternatives," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1763-1773.
    7. Jingchao, Zhang & Kotani, Koji, 2012. "The determinants of household energy demand in rural Beijing: Can environmentally friendly technologies be effective?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 381-388.
    8. Fang, Wen Shwo & Miller, Stephen M. & Yeh, Chih-Chuan, 2012. "The effect of ESCOs on energy use," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 558-568.
    9. Jack Gregory & David I. Stern, 2012. "Fuel Choices in Rural Maharashtra," CCEP Working Papers 1207, Centre for Climate Economics & Policy, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    10. Jiang, Xinyuan & Sommer, Sven G. & Christensen, Knud V., 2011. "A review of the biogas industry in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6073-6081, October.
    11. Malla, Sunil & Timilsina, Govinda R, 2014. "Household cooking fuel choice and adoption of improved cookstoves in developing countries : a review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6903, The World Bank.
    12. Mirza, Bilal & Kemp, Rene, 2009. "Why Rural Rich Remain Energy Poor," MERIT Working Papers 024, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    13. Wang, Qiang, 2014. "Effects of urbanisation on energy consumption in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 332-339.
    14. Zhang, Xiao-Bing & Hassen, Sied, 2014. "Household fuel choice in urban China: A random effect generalized probit analysis," Working Papers in Economics 595, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    15. Leiwen Jiang & Karen Hardee, 2011. "How do Recent Population Trends Matter to Climate Change?," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 287-312, April.
    16. Roger Fouquet, 2010. "The Slow Search for Solutions: Lessons from Historical Energy Transitions by Sector and Service," Working Papers 2010-05, BC3.
    17. Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2011. "Conceptualizing urban household energy use: Climbing the "Energy Services Ladder"," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1659-1668, March.
    18. Phetkeo Poumanyvong & Shinji Kaneko & Shobhakar Dhakal, 2012. "Impacts of urbanization on national residential energy use and CO2 emissions: Evidence from low-, middle- and high-income countries," IDEC DP2 Series 2-5, Hiroshima University, Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC).
    19. Bhattacharyya, Subhes C., 2010. "Shaping a sustainable energy future for India: Management challenges," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4173-4185, August.

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