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Investigation of the costly-arbitrage model of price formation around the ex-dividend day in Norway

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  • Dai, Qinglei
  • Rydqvist, Kristian
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    Abstract

    We estimate the costly-arbitrage model of Boyd and Jagannathan [Boyd, John, and Jagannathan, Ravi, 1994, Ex-Dividend Price Behavior of Common Stocks, Review of Financial Studies 7, 711-741.] using Norwegian stock market data. Taxable distributions take place at two separate dates, one that entails the distribution of an imputation-tax credit and another the distribution of the cash dividend. We find that the costly-arbitrage model is consistent with observed stock returns around the ex-dividend day, but the model cannot explain the return patterns around the distribution of the tax credit. We conclude that uncertainty about the cash flows prevents arbitrage.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Empirical Finance.

    Volume (Year): 16 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 4 (September)
    Pages: 582-596

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:16:y:2009:i:4:p:582-596

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jempfin

    Related research

    Keywords: Ex-dividend day Withholding tax Imputation-tax credit Costly-arbitrage model Legal risk Estimation risk;

    References

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    1. Franklin Allen & Antonio Bernardo & Ivo Welch, . "A Theory of Dividends Based on Tax Clienteles," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 15-98, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    2. Grinblatt, Mark & Keloharju, Matti, 2000. "Tax Loss Trading and Wash Sales," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt0dq642kg, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    3. Murray Frank & Ravi Jagannathan, 1997. "Why do stock prices drop by less than the value of the dividend? Evidence from a country without taxes," Staff Report 229, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    4. Bartholdy, Jan & Briown, Kate, 2002. "Testing for Multiple Types of Marginal Investor in Ex-day Pricing," Finance Working Papers 02-12, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Business Studies.
    5. Michaely, Roni & Murgia, Maurizio, 1995. "The Effect of Tax Heterogeneity on Prices and Volume around the Ex-dividend Day: Evidence from the Milan Stock Exchange," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(2), pages 369-99.
    6. Bell, Leonie & Jenkinson, Tim, 2001. "New Evidence of the Impact of Dividend Taxation and on the Identity of the Marginal Investor," CEPR Discussion Papers 2946, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. John H. Boyd & Ravi Jagannathan, 1994. "Ex-dividend price behavior of common stocks," Staff Report 173, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
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    12. Florentsen, Bjarne & Rydqvist, Kristian, 2002. "Ex-Day Behavior When Investors and Professional Traders Assume Reverse Roles: The Case of Danish Lottery Bonds," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 152-175, April.
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    15. Dan Dhaliwal & Oliver Zhen Li, 2006. "Investor Tax Heterogeneity and Ex-Dividend Day Trading Volume," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(1), pages 463-490, 02.
    16. Keim, Donald B., 1983. "Size-related anomalies and stock return seasonality : Further empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 13-32, June.
    17. Michaely, Roni & Vila, Jean-Luc, 1995. "Investors' Heterogeneity, Prices, and Volume around the Ex-Dividend Day," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(02), pages 171-198, June.
    18. Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J, 1970. "Marginal Stockholder Tax Rates and the Clientele Effect," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(1), pages 68-74, February.
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    20. Dyl, Edward A, 1977. "Capital Gains Taxation and Year-End Stock Market Behavior," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(1), pages 165-75, March.
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