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Tax-Loss Trading and Wash Sales

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  • Mark Grinblatt
  • Matti Keloharju

Abstract

An analysis of Finnish investors' stock trades shows that they realize losses more than gains towards the end of December. Moreover, they repurchase the same stocks recently sold. The repurchase rate depends on loss magnitude, firm

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Yale School of Management in its series Yale School of Management Working Papers with number ysm148.

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Date of creation: 01 Aug 2000
Date of revision: 01 Nov 2002
Handle: RePEc:ysm:somwrk:ysm148

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References

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  2. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-91, March.
  3. Givoly, Dan & Ovadia, Arie, 1983. " Year-End Tax-Induced Sales and Stock Market Seasonality," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(1), pages 171-85, March.
  4. Constantinides, George M., 1984. "Optimal stock trading with personal taxes : Implications for prices and the abnormal January returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 65-89, March.
  5. Musto, David K, 1997. " Portfolio Disclosures and Year-End Price Shifts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1563-88, September.
  6. James M. Poterba, 2001. "Capital Gains Tax Rules, Tax-loss Trading, and Turn-of-the-year Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 353-368, 02.
  7. Josef Lakonishok & Andrei Shleifer & Richard Thaler & Robert Vishny, 1991. "Window Dressing by Pension Fund Managers," NBER Working Papers 3617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Terrance Odean, 1998. "Are Investors Reluctant to Realize Their Losses?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1775-1798, October.
  9. Alan J. Auerbach & Leonard E. Burman & Jonathan Siegel, 1998. "Capital Gains Taxation and Tax Avoidance: New Evidence from Panel Data," NBER Working Papers 6399, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Grinblatt, Mark & Keloharju, Matti, 2000. "The investment behavior and performance of various investor types: a study of Finland's unique data set," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 43-67, January.
  11. Kato, Kiyoshi & Schallheim, James S., 1985. "Seasonal and Size Anomalies in the Japanese Stock Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(02), pages 243-260, June.
  12. D'Mello, Ranjan & Ferris, Stephen P. & Hwang, Chuan Yang, 2003. "The tax-loss selling hypothesis, market liquidity, and price pressure around the turn-of-the-year," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 73-98, January.
  13. Constantinides, George M. & Ingersoll, Jonathan Jr., 1984. "Optimal bond trading with personal taxes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 299-335, September.
  14. Dyl, Edward A, 1977. "Capital Gains Taxation and Year-End Stock Market Behavior," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(1), pages 165-75, March.
  15. Kasanen, Eero & Kinnunen, Juha & Niskanen, Jyrki, 1996. "Dividend-based earnings management: Empirical evidence from Finland," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 283-312, October.
  16. G. Geoffrey Booth & Ji-Chai Lin & Teppo Martikainen & Yiuman Tse, 2002. "Trading and Pricing in Upstairs and Downstairs Stock Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1111-1135.
  17. Shefrin, Hersh & Statman, Meir, 1985. " The Disposition to Sell Winners Too Early and Ride Losers Too Long: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 777-90, July.
  18. Keim, Donald B., 1983. "Size-related anomalies and stock return seasonality : Further empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 13-32, June.
  19. Chan, K C, 1986. " Can Tax-Loss Selling Explain the January Seasonal in Stock Returns?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(5), pages 1115-28, December.
  20. Sias, Richard W & Starks, Laura T, 1997. " Institutions and Individuals at the Turn-of-the-Year," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1543-62, September.
  21. Poterba, James M., 1987. "How burdensome are capital gains taxes?: Evidence from the United States," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 157-172, July.
  22. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-36, May-June.
  23. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan & Titman, Sheridan, 1993. " Returns to Buying Winners and Selling Losers: Implications for Stock Market Efficiency," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 65-91, March.
  24. Chip Heath & Steven Huddart & Mark Lang, 1999. "Psychological Factors And Stock Option Exercise," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 601-627, May.
  25. Ritter, Jay R, 1988. " The Buying and Selling Behavior of Individual Investors at the Turn of the Year," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 701-17, July.
  26. Mark Grinblatt, 2001. "What Makes Investors Trade?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 589-616, 04.
  27. Brown, Philip & Keim, Donald B. & Kleidon, Allan W. & Marsh, Terry A., 1983. "Stock return seasonalities and the tax-loss selling hypothesis : Analysis of the arguments and Australian evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 105-127, June.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Kallunki, Juha-Pekka & Nilsson, Henrik & Hellström, Jörgen, 2009. "Why do insiders trade? Evidence based on unique data on Swedish insiders," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 37-53, October.
  2. Zoran Ivkovich & James Poterba & Scott Weisbenner, 2004. "Tax-Motivated Trading by Individual Investors," NBER Working Papers 10275, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Vaihekoski, Mika, 2008. "History of finance research and education in Finland: The first thirty years," Research Discussion Papers 18/2008, Bank of Finland.
  4. Dai, Qinglei & Rydqvist, Kristian, 2009. "Investigation of the costly-arbitrage model of price formation around the ex-dividend day in Norway," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 582-596, September.
  5. Dai, Qinglei & Rydqvist, Kristian, 2007. "Investigation of the Costly-Arbitrage Model of Price Formation Around the Ex-Dividend Day," CEPR Discussion Papers 6074, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Kaustia, Markku & Rantapuska, Elias, 2012. "Rational and behavioral motives to trade: Evidence from reinvestment of dividends and tender offer proceeds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 2366-2378.
  7. Mika Vaihekoski, 2011. "History of financial research and education in Finland," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(5-6), pages 339-354.
  8. Rantapuska, Elias, 2008. "Ex-dividend day trading: Who, how, and why?: Evidence from the Finnish market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 355-374, May.
  9. Vidal-García, Javier & Vidal, Marta, 2014. "Seasonality and idiosyncratic risk in mutual fund performance," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 233(3), pages 613-624.
  10. Fong, Kingsley Y.L. & Gallagher, David R. & Lau, Sarah S.W. & Swan, Peter L., 2009. "Do active fund managers care about capital gains tax efficiency?," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 257-270, April.
  11. Cooper, Michael J. & McConnell, John J. & Ovtchinnikov, Alexei V., 2006. "The other January effect," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 315-341, November.

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