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The Impact of Training on Earnings: Differences Between Participant Groups and Training Forms


  • Kuckulenz, Anja
  • Zwick, Thomas


While there is a broad literature on the general wage effect of training, little is known about the effects of different training forms and about the effects for heterogeneous training participants. This study therefore adds two aspects to the literature on earnings effects of training. First, the earnings effect of training is calculated for different ?types? of employees, i.e. discriminating between qualification level, experience, job tenure, and other attributes. Second, we distinguish between the earnings impact of external and internal training. For our analysis, we use the ?Qualification and Career survey?, a rich German data set with information on 0.1 percent of all individuals employed in Germany in 1998/1999. We use a one-step full-information maximum likelihood and a two stage least squares estimation to regress the impact of training participation on earnings correcting for the endogeneity of training participation. By using a broad list of employee and employer characteristics, we try to avoid omitted variable bias. We find the training earnings markup to be positively correlated with qualification and experience. The analysis of internal and external training reveals that this result is driven by external training only. Internal training does not have a significant earnings effect. The correction for selection into training leads to an increase in the training coefficients and a decrease of its significance.

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  • Kuckulenz, Anja & Zwick, Thomas, 2003. "The Impact of Training on Earnings: Differences Between Participant Groups and Training Forms," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-57, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:1379

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    Cited by:

    1. Benoît Mahy & Mélanie Volral, 2011. "Firm Training and Labour Demand in Belgium :Does Productivity Dominate Cost Effects ?," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 54(4), pages 367-388.
    2. repec:zbw:rwimat:045 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Hidalgo, Diana & Oosterbeek, Hessel & Webbink, Dinand, 2014. "The impact of training vouchers on low-skilled workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 117-128.
    4. Ludwig, Volker & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2005. "Abschreibungsraten allgemeiner und beruflicher Ausbildungsinhalte," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-36, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Arntz, Melanie & Gregory, Terry & Zierahn, Ulrich, 2016. "ELS issues in robotics and steps to consider them. Part 1: Robotics and employment. Consequences of robotics and technological change for the structure and level of employment," ZEW Expertises, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research, number 146501.
    6. Grit Muehler & Michael Beckmann & Bernd Schauenberg, 2007. "The returns to continuous training in Germany: new evidence from propensity score matching estimators," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 209-235, November.
    7. Andrea Filippetti & Frederick Guy & Simona Iammarino, 2015. "Does training help in times of crisis? Training in employment in Northern and Southern Italy," Working Papers 28, Birkbeck Centre for Innovation Management Research, revised Dec 2015.
    8. Bublitz, Elisabeth & Boll, Christina, 2016. "Individual determinants of job-related learning and training activities of employees - An exploratory analysis of gender differences," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145865, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    9. Ammermueller, Andreas & Kuckulenz, Anja & Zwick, Thomas, 2009. "Aggregate unemployment decreases individual returns to education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 217-226, April.
    10. Kuckulenz, Anja, 2006. "Wage and Productivity Effect of Continuing Training in Germany: A Sectoral Analysis," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-025, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    11. Bender, Stefan & Fertig, Michael & Görlitz, Katja & Huber, Martina & Hummelsheim, Stefan & Knerr, Petra & Schmucker, Alexandra & Schröder, Helmut, 2008. "WeLL - berufliche Weiterbildung als Bestandteil lebenslangen Lernens," RWI Materialien 45, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
    12. Boll, Christina & Bublitz, Elisabeth, 2016. "A cross-country comparison of gender differences in job-related training: The role of working hours and the household context," HWWI Research Papers 172, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
    13. Stefan Bender & Michael Fertig & Katja Görlitz & Martina Huber & Stefan Hummelsheim & Petra Knerr & Alexandra Schmucker & Helmut Schröder, 2008. "WeLL - Berufliche Weiterbildung als Bestandteil Lebenslangen Lernens," RWI Materialien, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, pages 40, 08.
    14. Anna Ruzik-Sierdzinska & Claudia Villosio & Michele Belloni & Maciej Lis & Monika Potoczna, 2013. "Age and productivity. Human Capital Accumulation and Depreciation," CASE Network Reports 0114, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
    15. Kuckulenz, Anja, 2006. "Continuing Vocational Training in Germany: A Comparative Study Using 3 German Data Set," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-024, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    16. Rita Asplund, 2005. "The Provision and Effects of Company Training: A Brief Review of the Literature," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 31, pages 47-73.
    17. Addison, John T. & Belfield, Clive R., 2008. "Unions, Training, and Firm Performance," IZA Discussion Papers 3294, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Budría, Santiago & Pereira, Pedro T., 2004. "On the Returns to Training in Portugal," IZA Discussion Papers 1429, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item


    continuing training; returns to training; endogeneity; employee heterogeneity; training forms;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity


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