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Calculation of the variance in surveys of the economic climate

Author

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  • Manuela Alcañiz

    () (Grup de Recerca de Risc en Finances i Assegurances (RISC), Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada (IREA), Departament d'Econometria, Estadística i Economia Espanyola, Universitat de Barcelona)

  • Àlex Costa

    () (Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya)

  • Montserrat Guillén

    () (Grup de Recerca de Risc en Finances i Assegurances (RISC), Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada (IREA), Departament d'Econometria, Estadística i Economia Espanyola, Universitat de Barcelona)

  • Carme Luna

    () (Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya)

  • Cristina Rovira

    () (Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya)

Abstract

Public opinion surveys have become progressively incorporated into systems of official statistics. Surveys of the economic climate are usually qualitative because they collect opinions of businesspeople and/or experts about the long-term indicators described by a number of variables. In such cases the responses are expressed in ordinal numbers, that is, the respondents verbally report, for example, whether during a given trimester the sales or the new orders have increased, decreased or remained the same as in the previous trimester. These data allow to calculate the percent of respondents in the total population (results are extrapolated), who select every one of the three options. Data are often presented in the form of an index calculated as the difference between the percent of those who claim that a given variable has improved in value and of those who claim that it has deteriorated. As in any survey conducted on a sample the question of the measurement of the sample error of the results has to be addressed, since the error influences both the reliability of the results and the calculation of the sample size adequate for a desired confidence interval. The results presented here are based on data from the Survey of the Business Climate (Encuesta de Clima Empresarial) developed through the collaboration of the Statistical Institute of Catalonia (Institut d’Estadística de Catalunya) with the Chambers of Commerce (Cámaras de Comercio) of Sabadell and Terrassa.

Suggested Citation

  • Manuela Alcañiz & Àlex Costa & Montserrat Guillén & Carme Luna & Cristina Rovira, 2006. "Calculation of the variance in surveys of the economic climate," Working Papers CREAP2006-06, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Nov 2006.
  • Handle: RePEc:xrp:wpaper:creap2006-06
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    Cited by:

    1. Anna Matas Prats & José Luís Raymond Bara & José Luís Raymond Bara, 2008. "Job accessibility and employment probability," Working Papers XREAP2008-05, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised May 2008.
    2. Juan Luis Jiménez & Jordi Perdiguero & Ancor Suárez, 2011. "Debating as a classroom tool for adapting learning outcomes to the European higher education area," IREA Working Papers 201109, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Jun 2011.
    3. Ana María Osorio & Catalina Bolancé & Manuela Alcañiz, 2011. "Measuring early childhood health: a composite index comparing Colombian departments," IREA Working Papers 201122, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Oct 2011.
    4. Jordi Perdiguero, 2011. "Vertical relations and local competition: an empirical approach," IREA Working Papers 201124, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Dec 2011.
    5. Lluís Bermúdez & Antoni Ferri & Montse Guillén, 2011. "A correlation sensitivity analysis of non-life underwriting risk in solvency capital requirement estimation," IREA Working Papers 201113, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Sep 2011.
    6. Miguel Santolino & Catalina Bolancé & Manuela Alcañiz, 2011. "Factors affecting hospital admission and recovery stay duration of in-patient motor victims in Spain," IREA Working Papers 201119, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Oct 2011.
    7. Christian Durán Weitkamp & Mónica Martín Bofarull & Federico Pablo Martí, 2008. "Economic effects of road accessibility in the Pyrenees: user perspective," Working Papers XREAP2008-01, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Jan 2008.
    8. Germà Bel & Xavier Fageda & Melania Mur, 2011. "Why do municipalities cooperate to provide local public services? An empirical analysis," IREA Working Papers 201118, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Oct 2011.
    9. David Castells-Quintana & Vicente Royuela, 2014. "Agglomeration, inequality and economic growth," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 52(2), pages 343-366, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic climate; variances; sampling methods.;

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General

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