IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/8009.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

All these worlds are yours, except India : the effectiveness of export subsidies in Nepal

Author

Listed:
  • Defever,Fabrice Fernand
  • Reyes,Jose Daniel
  • Riano,Alejandro
  • Varela,Gonzalo J.

Abstract

This paper evaluates the effect on firm-level export outcomes of the Cash Incentive Scheme for Exports program provided by the Government of Nepal. The analysis utilizes customs-level data for 2011-14, combined with information on the subsidy payments made to individual firms provided by the Central Bank of Nepal. The Cash Incentive Scheme for Exports cash subsidy is available to firms exporting a select group of products, and requires firms to export to countries other than India. Overall, the subsidy has not produced a significant impact on firm-level export values, prices, quantities, or their growth rates. However, the study finds a small positive effect on the number of eligible products exported to countries other than India and the number of destination markets reached among firms that receive the subsidy. These results are consistent with the fact that the subsidy was granted primarily to large exporters that were already shipping eligible products to countries other than India. The findings suggest that although the cash subsidy has not produced a significant increase in exports, it has achieved a positive impact on export diversification for firms that were already satisfying the scheme's eligibility criteria.

Suggested Citation

  • Defever,Fabrice Fernand & Reyes,Jose Daniel & Riano,Alejandro & Varela,Gonzalo J., 2017. "All these worlds are yours, except India : the effectiveness of export subsidies in Nepal," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8009, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:8009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/698681490020512516/pdf/WPS8009.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Richard E. Caves, 1976. "Economic Models of Political Choice: Canada's Tariff Structure," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 9(2), pages 278-300, May.
    2. Johannes Van Biesebroeck & Emily Yu & Shenjie Chen, 2015. "The impact of trade promotion services on Canadian exporter performance," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 48(4), pages 1481-1512, November.
    3. Holger Görg & Michael Henry & Eric Strobl, 2008. "Grant Support and Exporting Activity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 168-174, February.
    4. Feenstra, Robert C., 1986. "Trade policy with several goods and market linkages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3-4), pages 249-267, May.
    5. Cadot, Olivier & Fernandes, Ana M. & Gourdon, Julien & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2015. "Are the benefits of export support durable? Evidence from Tunisia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 310-324.
    6. Olivier Cadot & Céline Carrère & Vanessa Strauss-Kahn, 2011. "Export Diversification: What's behind the Hump?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 590-605, May.
    7. Carsten Eckel & J. Peter Neary, 2010. "Multi-Product Firms and Flexible Manufacturing in the Global Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(1), pages 188-217.
    8. Ricardo Hausmann & Jason Hwang & Dani Rodrik, 2007. "What you export matters," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 1-25, March.
    9. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1994. "Protection for Sale," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 833-850, September.
    10. J. N. Bhagwati & T. N. Srinivasan, 1969. "Optimal Intervention to Achieve Non-Economic Objectives," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(1), pages 27-38.
    11. Itoh, Motoshige & Kiyono, Kazuharu, 1987. "Welfare-Enhancing Export Subsidies," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(1), pages 115-137, February.
    12. R. G. Lipsey & Kelvin Lancaster, 1956. "The General Theory of Second Best," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(1), pages 11-32.
    13. Grossman, Gene M. & Helpman, Elhanan, 1994. "Foreign Investment with Endogenous Protection," Foerder Institute for Economic Research Working Papers 275594, Tel-Aviv University > Foerder Institute for Economic Research.
    14. Sourafel Girma & Yundan Gong & Holger Görg & Zhihong Yu, 2009. "Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm‐level Data," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 111(4), pages 863-891, December.
    15. Andrew B. Bernard & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2011. "Multiproduct Firms and Trade Liberalization," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(3), pages 1271-1318.
    16. Johan F. M. Swinnen, 1994. "A Positive Theory of Agricultural Protection," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 76(1), pages 1-14.
    17. Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3577, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. David de Ferranti & Guillermo E. Perry & Daniel Lederman & William E. Maloney, 2002. "From Natural Resources to the Knowledge Economy : Trade and Job Quality," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14040, December.
    19. Prebisch, Raúl, 1950. "The economic development of Latin America and its principal problems," Sede de la CEPAL en Santiago (Estudios e Investigaciones) 29973, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    20. Alwyn Young, 1991. "Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 369-405.
    21. Fernandes, Ana M. & Freund, Caroline & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2016. "Exporter behavior, country size and stage of development: Evidence from the exporter dynamics database," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 121-137.
    22. Brander, James A. & Spencer, Barbara J., 1985. "Export subsidies and international market share rivalry," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1-2), pages 83-100, February.
    23. Defever, Fabrice & Riaño, Alejandro, 2017. "Subsidies with export share requirements in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 33-51.
    24. Lederman, Daniel & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Payton, Lucy, 2010. "Export promotion agencies: Do they work?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 257-265, March.
    25. Christian Helmers & Natalia Trofimenko, 2013. "The Use and Abuse of Export Subsidies: Evidence from Colombia," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(4), pages 465-486, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Srhoj, Stjepan & Vitezic, Vanja & Wagner, Joachim, 2020. "Export boosting policies and firm behaviour: Review of empirical evidence around the world," MPRA Paper 104330, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Jorge F. Chávez & Antonio Cusato Novelli & Max Perez Leon, 2020. "Export Subsidies in Emerging Markets During the Great Trade Collapse," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 40(3), pages 1879-1892.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Defever, Fabrice & Reyes, José-Daniel & Riaño, Alejandro & Varela, Gonzalo, 2020. "All these worlds are yours, except india: The effectiveness of cash subsidies to export in nepal," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    2. Srhoj, Stjepan & Vitezic, Vanja & Wagner, Joachim, 2020. "Export boosting policies and firm behaviour: Review of empirical evidence around the world," MPRA Paper 104330, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Cadot, Olivier & Fernandes, Ana M. & Gourdon, Julien & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2015. "Are the benefits of export support durable? Evidence from Tunisia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 310-324.
    4. Johannes Van Biesebroeck & Emily Yu & Shenjie Chen, 2015. "The impact of trade promotion services on Canadian exporter performance," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 48(4), pages 1481-1512, November.
    5. Broocks, Annette & Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2017. "The impact of export promotion on export market entry," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 19-33.
    6. Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose, 2014. "Do export promotion agencies promote new exporters ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7004, The World Bank.
    7. Theo S. Eicher & David J. Kuenzel, 2016. "The elusive effects of trade on growth: Export diversity and economic take-off," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 49(1), pages 264-295, February.
    8. Bräuer, Richard & Mertens, Matthias & Slavtchev, Viktor, 2019. "Import competition and firm productivity: Evidence from German manufacturing," IWH Discussion Papers 20/2019, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    9. Volpe Martincus, Christian & Estevadeordal, Antoni, 2011. "Trade Policy and Specialization," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 2489, Inter-American Development Bank.
    10. Johannes Van Biesebroeck & Jozef Konings & Christian Volpe Martincus, 2016. "Did export promotion help firms weather the crisis?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 31(88), pages 653-702.
    11. W. Steingress, 2015. "Entry barriers to international trade: product versus firm fixed costs," Working papers 544, Banque de France.
    12. Goya, Daniel, 2020. "The exchange rate and export variety: A cross-country analysis with long panel estimators," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 649-665.
    13. Defever,Fabrice Fernand & Riano,Alejandro & Varela,Gonzalo J., 2020. "Evaluating the Impact of Export Finance Support on Firm-Level Export Performance : Evidence from Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9362, The World Bank.
    14. Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose, 2014. "Do export promotion agencies promote new exporters ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7004, The World Bank.
    15. Mary Amiti & Jozef Konings, 2007. "Trade Liberalization, Intermediate Inputs, and Productivity: Evidence from Indonesia," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(5), pages 1611-1638, December.
    16. Jarreau, Joachim & Poncet, Sandra, 2012. "Export sophistication and economic growth: Evidence from China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 281-292.
    17. Stephan Huber, 2018. "Product Sophistication and Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment," Contributions to Economics, in: Product Characteristics in International Economics, chapter 0, pages 51-90, Springer.
    18. Shon Ferguson & Rikard Forslid, 2019. "Sizing Up the Impact of Embassies on Exports," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(1), pages 278-297, January.
    19. Piotr Gabrielczak & Tomasz Serwach, 2017. "The impact of the euro adoption on the complexity of goods in Slovenian exports," Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci/Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, University of Rijeka, Faculty of Economics, vol. 35(1), pages 45-71.
    20. Kamal Saggi & Andrey Stoyanov & Halis Murat Yildiz, 2018. "Do Free Trade Agreements Affect Tariffs of Nonmember Countries? A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 10(3), pages 128-170, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Social Policy; Legal Products; Services&Transfers to Poor; Foreign Trade Promotion and Regulation; Trade Law; Disability; Regulatory Regimes; Legislation; Access of Poor to Social Services; Economic Assistance; Judicial System Reform; Legal Reform; Trade Technology and Productivity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:8009. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Roula I. Yazigi (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.