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Inequality of opportunity in Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • Brunori,Paolo
  • Palmisano,Flaviana
  • Peragine,Vito

Abstract

In the last decades, inequality of opportunity has been extensively studied by economists on the assumption that, in addition to being normatively undesirable, it can be related to low potential for growth. This paper evaluates inequality of opportunity and the different sources of unequal opportunities in 11 Sub-Saharan Africa countries. The results indicate that the portion of total inequality that can be attributed to exogenous circumstances -- that is, circumstances outside the control of individuals control -- is between 30 percent and 40 percent in the countries considered. The results also indicate a positive association between total consumption inequality and inequality of opportunity. Finally, this paper addresses a number of methodological issues that typically arise when measuring inequality of opportunity with imperfect data, which is the typical case in developing countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Brunori,Paolo & Palmisano,Flaviana & Peragine,Vito, 2016. "Inequality of opportunity in Sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7782, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:7782
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    3. Flaviana Palmisano & Federico Biagi & Vito Peragine, 2022. "Inequality of Opportunity in Tertiary Education: Evidence from Europe," Research in Higher Education, Springer;Association for Institutional Research, vol. 63(3), pages 514-565, May.
    4. Kartseva, Marina & Kuznetsova, Polina, 2020. "Is income inequality fair in Russia? Inequality of opportunity and income inequality," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 58, pages 5-31.
    5. Markus Jäntti & Milly Isingoma Nalukwago & Ronald Waiswa, 2022. "Income distribution in Uganda based on tax registers: what do top incomes say?," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2022-6, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Marc Fleurbaey & Vito Peragine & Xavier Ramos, 2017. "Ex post inequality of opportunity comparisons," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 49(3), pages 577-603, December.
    7. Guenther, Isabel & Tetteh-Baah, Samuel Kofi, 2019. "The impact of discrimination on redistributive preferences and productivity: experimental evidence from the United States," VfS Annual Conference 2019 (Leipzig): 30 Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall - Democracy and Market Economy 203652, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    8. Paolo Brunori & Vito Peragine & Laura Serlenga, 2019. "Upward and downward bias when measuring inequality of opportunity," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 52(4), pages 635-661, April.
    9. Tetteh-Baah, Samuel Kofi & Günther, Isabel, 2020. "The impact of gender and ethnic discrimination on redistribution and productivity," VfS Annual Conference 2020 (Virtual Conference): Gender Economics 224633, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. Flaviana Palmisano & Vito Peragine & Federico Biagi, 2019. "Inequality of opportunity in tertiary education in Europe," JRC Research Reports JRC118543, Joint Research Centre.
    11. Pérez-Mesa, David & Marrero, Gustavo A. & Darias-Curvo, Sara, 2021. "Child health inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 108801, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Maurizio Bussolo & Daniele Checchi & Vito Peragine, 2018. "The long term evolution of inequality of opportunity," LIS Working papers 730, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    13. Leopoldo Cabrera & Gustavo A. Marrero & Juan Gabriel Rodríguez & Pedro Salas-Rojo, 2021. "Inequality of Opportunity in Spain: New Insights from New Data," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 237(2), pages 153-185, June.
    14. Monserrat Serio, 2021. "Desempeño educativo de los estudiantes en Argentina: Una mirada a la desigualdad de oportunidades del sistema educativo a partir de su medición y descomposición," Working Papers 86, Red Nacional de Investigadores en Economía (RedNIE).
    15. Elodie Douarin & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2022. "Is the post-communist transition over?," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 494-494, June.
    16. Paolo Brunori & Flaviana Palmisano & Vito Peragine, 2015. "Inequality of opportunity during the great recession in Uganda," WIDER Working Paper Series 039, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    17. Monica P. Lambon-Quayefio & Robert D. Osei & Abena D. Oduro & Isaac Osei Akoto, 2020. "Understanding the relationship between Consumption Inequality, Inequality of Opportunity and Education Outcomes in Ghana," Working Paper 7fb837eb-0c6e-4b0e-973b-7, Agence française de développement.
    18. Seungwoo Han, 2022. "Identifying the roots of inequality of opportunity in South Korea by application of algorithmic approaches," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 9(1), pages 1-10, December.
    19. Kristof Bosmans & Z. Emel Öztürk, 2021. "Measurement of inequality of opportunity: A normative approach," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 19(2), pages 213-237, June.
    20. Balwant Singh Mehta & Siddharth Dhote & Ravi Srivastava, 2023. "Decomposition of Inequality of Opportunity in India: An Application of Data-Driven Machine Learning Approach," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 66(2), pages 439-469, June.
    21. Abebe Shimeles & Tiguene Nabassaga, 2018. "Why Is Inequality High in Africa?," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies, vol. 27(1), pages 108-126.
    22. International Energy Agency & International Renewable Energy Agency & United Nations Statistics Division & World Bank & World Health Organization, "undated". "Tracking SDG 7," World Bank Publications - Reports 33822, The World Bank Group.
    23. Paul Hufe & Andreas Peichl & Daniel Weishaar, 2019. "Lower and Upper Bounds of Inequality of Opportunity in Emerging Economies," ifo Working Paper Series 301, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    24. Paolo Brunori & Flaviana Palmisano & Vitorocco Peragine, 2015. "Inequality of Opportunity During the Great Recession in Uganda," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2015-039, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Equity and Development; Achieving Shared Growth; Pro-Poor Growth;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

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