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Export liberalization, job creation and the skill premium : evidence from the U.S.-Vietnam bilateral trade agreement

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  • Fukase, Emiko

Abstract

This paper explores how the expansion of labor-intensive manufacturing exports resulting from the United States-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement in 2001 translated into wages of skilled and unskilled workers and the skill premium in Vietnam through the channel of labor demand. In order to isolate the impacts of trade shock from the effects of other market-oriented reforms, a strategy of exploiting the regional variation in difference in exposure to trade is employed. Using the data on panel individuals from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004, and addressing the issue of endogeneity, the results confirm the existence of a Stolper-Samuelson type effect. That is, those provinces more exposed to the increase in exports experienced relatively larger wage growth for unskilled workers and a decline of (or a smaller increase in) the relative wages of skilled and unskilled workers. During the period 2000-2004, the skill premium increased for Vietnam's economy as a whole in the sample of panel individuals. Thus, the Stolper-Samuelson type effect appears to have mitigated but did not outweigh the impacts of other factors that contributed to the rise in the skill premium.

Suggested Citation

  • Fukase, Emiko, 2013. "Export liberalization, job creation and the skill premium : evidence from the U.S.-Vietnam bilateral trade agreement," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6419, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6419
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Kis-Katos, Krisztina & Sparrow, Robert, 2015. "Poverty, labor markets and trade liberalization in Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 94-106.
    2. Emiko Fukase & Will Martin, 2016. "Agro-processing and horticultural exports from Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series 174, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    3. L. Alan Winters & Antonio Martuscelli, 2014. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: What Have We Learned in a Decade?," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 493-512, October.
    4. Fukase,Emiko & Martin,William J., 2015. "Economic implications of a potential free trade agreement between India and the United States," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7212, The World Bank.
    5. Cali,Massimiliano & Hollweg,Claire Honore & Ruppert Bulmer,Elizabeth N., 2015. "Seeking shared prosperity through trade," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7314, The World Bank.
    6. Andrei Potlogea & Wenya Cheng, 2017. "Trade Liberalization and Economic Development: Evidence from China's WTO Accession," 2017 Meeting Papers 1648, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    7. Brian McCaig & Nina Pavcnik, 2014. "Export Markets and Labor Allocation in a Low-income Country," NBER Working Papers 20455, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Johannes Schwarzer, 2016. "Trade and Employment. An Overview," Discussion Notes 1601, Council on Economic Policies.
    9. Prodyumna Goutam & Italo A. Gutierrez & Krishna B. Kumar & Shanthi Nataraj, 2017. "Does Informal Employment Respond to Growth Opportunities? Trade-Based Evidence from Bangladesh," Working Papers 1198, RAND Corporation.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Labor Markets; Economic Theory&Research; Free Trade; Trade Policy; Labor Policies;

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