IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/1030.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Measuring the effects of urban transportation policies on the environment : a survey of models

Author

Listed:
  • Krupnick, Alan J.

Abstract

Mandating emission control devices in new cars is only one of the most obvious steps to address the problem of vehicle emissions. Others range from taxes on gasoline and parking to incentives to scrap old cars or move businesses out of the cities. There are models to simulate the engineering implications when changes are made to the vehicle fleet (such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE 4), but other models are needed to capture individual behavior, for two reasons. First, behavior - for example, using certain vehicles - affects emissions, and thereby the effect of policies on pollution. Second, behavioral relations determine how much consumer welfare is affected by different policies - through other channels than the effect on air pollution. The author reviews existing models of urban transport and evaluates their ability to simulate the effects of different policies on emissions and on other variables relevant to welfare. He finds that: Little modeling work is done on developing countries, but some stylized facts (the greater importance of nonmotorized modes, of mopeds, of old vehicles, and of work-related trips, greater growth in urbanization, and greater growth in the urban vehicle stock) allow us to assess how well models from developed countries apply in industrial countries. Models vary greatly in complexity. The central question for users is whether they want detailed coverage of the spatial nature of pollution and congestion. The most comprehensive and detailed models also require the most data. The author proposes eclectic use of several models, since a model incorporating long-term responses, shorter-term responses, and emission consequences is not easily tractable. The author acknowledges the many complex links between policies (on the one hand) and welfare and air pollution (on the other), but says that research can often be narrowed according to available policy instruments, data availability, and the implications considered relevant. Often, simple models can improve the basis for policy evaluation, particularly when there are limited data and resources for research.

Suggested Citation

  • Krupnick, Alan J., 1992. "Measuring the effects of urban transportation policies on the environment : a survey of models," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1030, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1030
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1992/11/01/000009265_3961003165237/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Faini, Riccardo & Giannini, Curzio & Ingrosso, Fulvio, 1992. "Finance and Development: The Case of Southern Italy," CEPR Discussion Papers 674, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Tybout, James & de Melo, Jamie & Corbo, Vittorio, 1991. "The effects of trade reforms on scale and technical efficiency : New evidence from Chile," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3-4), pages 231-250, November.
    3. Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A., 1986. "Errors in variables in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 93-118, February.
    4. Liu, Lili, 1991. "Entry-exit, learning, and productivity change : evidence from Chile," Policy Research Working Paper Series 769, The World Bank.
    5. Cho, Yoon Je, 1986. "Inefficiencies from Financial Liberalization in the Absence of Well-Functioning Equity Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 18(2), pages 191-199, May.
    6. Tybout, James, 1986. "A firm-level chronicle of financial crises in the Southern Cone," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 371-400, December.
    7. Haramillo, Fidel & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Weiss, Andrew, 1996. "Capital market imperfections before and after financial liberalization: An Euler equation approach to panel data for Ecuadorian firms," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 367-386, December.
    8. Tybout, James R. & Westbrook, M. Daniel, 1991. "Estimating returns to scale with large imperfect panels," Policy Research Working Paper Series 754, The World Bank.
    9. Schmidt, Peter & Sickles, Robin C, 1984. "Production Frontiers and Panel Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 2(4), pages 367-374, October.
    10. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    11. Haramillo, Fidel & Schiantarelli, Fabio & Weiss, Andrew, 1996. "Capital market imperfections before and after financial liberalization: An Euler equation approach to panel data for Ecuadorian firms," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 367-386.
    12. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Swait, Joffre & Eskeland, Gunnar S., 1995. "Travel mode substitution in Sao Paulo : estimates and implications for air pollution control," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1437, The World Bank.
    2. Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Feyzioglu, Tarhan N., 1997. "Is demand for polluting goods manageable? An econometric study of car ownership and use in Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 423-445.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1030. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.