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Les éleveurs dans la gestion des menaces sanitaires globales : les éleveurs vietnamiens et la grippe aviaire

Listed author(s):
  • Figuié, M.
  • Desvaux, S.

This paper documents the logics underpinning Vietnamese farmers' management practices of an emerging disease, the avian flu (H5N1). In the area of our survey, one the front line of the fight against H5N1 according to international organizations (WHO, OIE, FAO), farmers and their poultry are supposed to be highly impacted by the epizootic caused by the virus. Moreover, farmers are called upon to collaborate to the global fight against the virus before it mutates in a pandemic virus. Our study shows that direct (poultry mortality) and indirect impacts (consequence of the measures imposed by the government to contain the virus, fluctuation of consumers' demand,...) show to be relatively limited when compared to the permanent state of instability which characterizes the context of poultry production in the surveyed village. This instability is mainly related to numerous and regular poultry infectious diseases and market instability. If international community considers H5N1 as a zoonotic risk and a pandemic threat which asks for emergency tools, H5N1 is framed by the farmers of our study as an epizootic problem manageable through routinized measures. These measures aim at minimizing the economic impact of the disease rather than preventing poultry from the disease. Consequently, local management of the disease cannot fit with the precautionary approach promoted by the international community. ...French Abstract : Cet article analyse la logique de gestion d'une émergence sanitaire, la grippe aviaire (H5N1) dans l'espace confiné d'une communauté d'éleveurs vietnamiens, et la confronte à celle de l'espace public des organisations internationales (OMS, OIE, FAO,...). La zone d'étude appartient à ce que les organisations internationales considèrent comme la ligne de front de la lutte internationale contre la grippe aviaire. Les éleveurs, à travers leurs volailles, y sont considérés comme d'importantes victimes de l'épizootie provoquée par le virus. Ils sont en outre très largement sollicités pour participer à la lutte contre le virus, afin d'éviter que celui-ci ne mute en un virus capable de provoquer une pandémie mondiale de grippe. Cependant, notre travail montre que l'impact du virus dans le village étudié se révèle relativement limité dans ses effets directs (mortalités) et indirects (mesures d'urgence, conséquences économiques et réglementaires), compte tenu du contexte permanant de pression infectieuse (maladie de Newcastle et autres), et d'instabilité des marchés que connaissent les éleveurs. La comparaison avec la logique de la communauté internationale montre que la grippe aviaire a été appréhendée par les éleveurs essentiellement dans sa dimension épizootique (au détriment des dimensions zoonotique et pandémique) et gérée par des stratégies routinières de minimisation des effets plutôt que de contrôle des causes. En ce sens, le virus s'il a posé problème aux éleveurs du village étudié n'a cependant pas été appréhendé comme un risque et encore moins vécu comme une crise sanitaire. Sa gestion locale ne peut relever du même principe de précaution qui a guidé la communauté internationale.

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Paper provided by UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro - Montpellier, France in its series Working Papers MOISA with number 201102.

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Date of creation: 2011
Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:201102
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