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Lending policies of informal, formal and semiformal lenders: evidence from Vietnam


  • Thi Thu Tra Pham
  • Robert Lensink


This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related activities. The probability of using informal credit increases for female borrowers. It also appears that the probability of using formal credit increases in household welfare up to a certain threshold, but at a decreasing rate. In addition, the paper discerns the determinants of probability of default across lender types. Default risk of formal credit appears to be strongly affected by formal loan contract terms, e.g. loan interest rate and form of loan repayment, whereas default risk on informal loans is significantly related to the presence of propinquity and other internal characteristics of the borrowing household. Overall, the study raises several important implications for the screening, monitoring and enforcement instruments that may be employed by different types of lenders.

Suggested Citation

  • Thi Thu Tra Pham & Robert Lensink, 2007. "Lending policies of informal, formal and semiformal lenders: evidence from Vietnam," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/14285, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/14285
    Note: FLWIN

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    Cited by:

    1. Eliana Wulandari & Miranda P M Meuwissen & Maman H Karmana & Alfons G J M Oude Lansink, 2017. "Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(9), pages 1-15, September.
    2. Kazunari TSUKADA & Takayuki HIGASHIKATA & Kazushi TAKAHASHI, 2010. "Microfinance Penetration And Its Influence On Credit Choice In Indonesia: Evidence From A Household Panel Survey," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 48(1), pages 102-127, March.
    3. Viet-Ha T. Nguyen & Hong Kong Nguyen-To & Thu Trang Vuong & Manh Tung Ho & Quan-Hoang Vuong, 2018. "How swelling debts give rise to a new type of politics in Vietnam," Working Papers CEB 18-026, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Uduakobong Inyang, 2022. "Risks to credit access in a developing economy:Focus on household characteristics and the choice of credit in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria," International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), Center for the Strategic Studies in Business and Finance, vol. 11(2), pages 228-240, March.
    5. Moumita Poddar & Tanmoyee Banerjee (Chatterjee) & Ajitava Raychaudhuri, 2019. "An economic analysis of the determinants of pattern of institutional borrowing in India," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 21(1), pages 54-92, June.
    6. Ana María Iregui-Bohórquez & Ligia Alba Melo-Becerra & María Teresa Ramírez-Giraldo & Ana María Tribín-Uribe, 2016. "Determinantes del acceso al crédito formal e informal: Evidencia de los hogares de ingresos medios y bajos en Colombia," Borradores de Economia 956, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    7. Cuong Viet Nguyen & Marrit Berg, 2014. "Informal Credit, Usury, or Support? A Case Study for Vietnam," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 52(2), pages 154-178, June.
    8. Le , Khuong Ninh & Cao , Van Hon, 2023. "Geographical Distance and Access to Bank Credit of Vietnamese Farmers," Journal of Economic Development, The Economic Research Institute, Chung-Ang University, vol. 48(1), pages 111-128, March.
    9. Tanmoyee Banerjee & Malabika Roy & Chandralekha Ghosh, 2010. "Does Political Identity Matter in Rural Borrowing? Evidence from a Field Survey," Journal of South Asian Development, , vol. 5(1), pages 137-163, April.
    10. Ta Nhat Linh & Dang Anh Tuan & Phan Thu Trang & Hoang Trung Lai & Do Quynh Anh & Nguyen Viet Cuong & Philippe Lebailly, 2020. "Determinants of Farming Households’ Credit Accessibility in Rural Areas of Vietnam: A Case Study in Haiphong City, Vietnam," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(11), pages 1-16, May.
    11. Ta Nhat Linh & Hoang Thanh Long & Le Van Chi & Le Thanh Tam & Philippe Lebailly, 2019. "Access to Rural Credit Markets in Developing Countries, the Case of Vietnam: A Literature Review," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(5), pages 1-18, March.
    12. Vuong Quoc, Duy, 2012. "Determinants of household access to formal credit in the rural areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam," MPRA Paper 38202, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Nguyen, Cuong & Van den Berg, Marrit, 2008. "The impact of Micro-credit and Informal Credit on Poverty and Inequality in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 107151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Cherry Wyle G. Layaoen & Kazushi Takahashi, 2022. "Can microfinance lending crowd out informal lenders? Evidence from the Philippines," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(2), pages 379-414, March.
    15. Simba, Amon & Martins Ogundana, Oyedele & Braune, Eric & Dana, Léo–Paul, 2023. "Community financing in entrepreneurship: A focus on women entrepreneurs in the developing world," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 163(C).
    16. Thi Kieu Van Tran & Ehsan Elahi & Liqin Zhang & Muhammad Abid & Quang Trung Pham & Thuy Duong Tran, 2018. "Gender differences in formal credit approaches: rural households in Vietnam," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 32(1), pages 131-138, May.
    17. Khac Linh Bui & Thanh Hang Bui, 2022. "Does Rural Credit Mediate Vulnerability Under Idiosyncratic and Covariate Shocks? Empirical Evidence from Vietnam Using a Multilevel Model," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 34(1), pages 172-224, February.
    18. Ali Sher & Saman Mazhar & Hossein Azadi & Guanghua Lin, 2020. "Smallholder Commercialization and Urban-Rural Linkages: Effect of Interest-Free Agriculture Credit on Market Participation of Rice Growers in Pakistan," Land, MDPI, vol. 10(1), pages 1-24, December.

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