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La transition énergétique : contrainte ou opportunité pour la croissance et l'emploi ?

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  • Francesco Vona

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

Abstract

Les politiques environnementales représentent-elles une contrainte ou, au contraire, une opportunité pour la croissance économique ? Deux thèses compatibles sont en présence. L’une met l’accent sur l’augmentation du prix de l’énergie et, par suite, des coûts pour l’industrie qui en menaceraient la compétitivité. L’autre insiste sur les effets à plus long terme qui, outre les gains en bien-être, pourraient permettre d'augmenter la compétitivité horsprix d'une industrie fortement transformée. Voici nos conclusions. 1. En France, le prix de l’électricité augmente légèrement moins que dans les autres pays et le niveau des prix reste au-dessous du prix moyen dans les autres pays. Il faut aussi noter que l'incidence du prix du gaz naturel (et du pétrole qui lui est très corrélé) est beaucoup plus forte en Italie, Allemagne et Espagne qu'en France, où l’électricité est produite principalement au moyen de l'énergie nucléaire ; 2. Dans tous ces pays, les secteurs polluants migrent vers des pays où les prix de l’énergie sont plus bas. Il s'ensuit une baisse de l'emploi qui s’avère plus élevée en France qu'en Italie et en Allemagne. La transition énergétique peut donc être très coûteuse pour l'industrie française ; 3. En France, l’augmentation du prix de l'énergie de 1 % réduit effectivement l’emploi de 0,26 % et la productivité des entreprises de 0,1 %. Toutefois, cette augmentation diminue la demande d'énergie de plus de 0,6 %, et réduit les émissions de gaz à effet de serre de plus de 1,1 % ; 4. La destruction d’emplois dans les industries intensives en énergie est potentiellement plus que compensée par la création d'emplois dans les industries vertes. Des études sur données américaines montrent que la création d'un emploi vert est associée à 2,4 emplois supplémentaires dans l'économie locale ; 5. Nous avançons trois prescriptions de politique économique : (i) le crédit d’impôtrecherche pourrait être utilisé pour stimuler les innovations stratégiques afin d'inciter à l'adoption des technologies vertes ; (ii) les objectifs de développement des technologies et des secteurs verts devraient être au cœur des mesures de soutien des pôles de compétitivité ; (iii) le système de formation professionnelle devrait favoriser la mobilité professionnelle des travailleurs vers les emplois verts dont la demande future devrait augmenter.

Suggested Citation

  • Francesco Vona, 2017. "La transition énergétique : contrainte ou opportunité pour la croissance et l'emploi ?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/1u2uf009088, Sciences Po.
  • Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/1u2uf009088vov77b1g8h47ah
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    Keywords

    Energie; Environnement; Compétitivité;

    JEL classification:

    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy

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