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Le « développement durable » comme nouveau champ d’accumulation. L’exemple de la réduction de la pollution atmosphérique. (« Sustainable development » as a new accumulation field. The example of atmospheric pollution)

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  • Dimitri Uzunidis

    () (Labrii, ULCO)

Abstract

Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à l’émergence du « développement durable » comme champ d’accumulation et d’innovations sur lequel prendra, peut-être, appui l’activité économique pour les décennies à venir. Dans un premier temps, nous explorons les rapports du « développement durable » avec la théorie économique. Celleci a toujours une référence : le développement industriel. Puis, c’est dans un contexte de crise économique que les économistes intègrent la contrainte environnementale, puis sociale, dans leurs analyses. Cette contrainte alimente un système techno-économique porteur d’innovations « éco-protectrices » et « éco-réparatrices », mais toujours ancré dans la même logique et dans les mêmes rapports économiques et politiques. Les stratégies d’innovation des grandes entreprises illustrent un double phénomène d’apparence contradictoire (deuxième partie) : d’un côté elles freinent, pour des raisons de coût, la réorientation des relations de système et, d’un autre côté, elles profitent de la contrainte pour investir, pour innover et pour réaliser des profits. Dans un troisième temps, nous explorons le chemin du possible et celui des conditions selon lesquelles le nouveau système techno-économique pourrait émerger et s’affirmer. Nous discutons des thèses de la théorie de la décroissance pour montrer que, historiquement, le changement de paradigme techno-économique (en l’occurrence le passage de l’industrialisme à l’éco-économie) suppose une remise en cause fondamentale des rapports économiques de propriété et d’appropriation. This paper deals with the emergence of « sustainable development » as an accumulation and innovation field, which will perhaps be the basis of economic activity for the next decades. We first explore the relations between « sustainable development » and economic theory. The latter main reference has always been industrial development. Then, it is in a context of economic crisis that economist have integrated the environmental and social constraints in their analysis. This constraint feeds a technoeconomic system bringing « eco-protecting » and « eco-repairing » innovations, but which is always based on the same logic and the same economic and politic relationships. The innovation strategies of big firms illustrate a double contradictory phenomenon (second part): on the one hand, they slow down, for cost reasons, they reorientation of systemic relations and, on the other hand, they take advantage of the constraint to invest, innovate and make profits. In a third part, we explore the possible path and the conditions that would favor the emergence and the affirmation of the new techno-economic system. We discuss the thesis of uneconomic growth to show that, historically, the change of techno-economic (the shift from industrialism to eco-economy) needs a fundamental questioning of economic relations of property and appropriation.

Suggested Citation

  • Dimitri Uzunidis, 2008. "Le « développement durable » comme nouveau champ d’accumulation. L’exemple de la réduction de la pollution atmosphérique. (« Sustainable development » as a new accumulation field. The example of atmos," Working Papers 180, Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation.
  • Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:180
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    Keywords

    sustainable development; accumulation field; atmospheric pollution; environment;

    JEL classification:

    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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