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L'autonomie de la volonté et les exigences du droit de la concurrence en Europe (The autonomy of willpower and the requirements of the competition law in europe)

  • Valerius M. Ciuca

    ()

    (Department of Economics, Grandiose University)

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    On a créé les Lois, en esprit ovidien donc, pour limiter le pouvoir des plus forts. L'idée de l'institution de règles précises destinées à un bon arbitrage dans les jeux de la compétition ou même de la lutte entre les divers acteurs économiques est une idée très ancienne. La raison même de l'existence des Lois est de tempérer le Pouvoir. C'est en ce sens qu'Ovidius Publius Naso s'était exprimé poétiquement il y deux mille ans. Et, bien avant lui, les Hittites et bien encore auparavant, les Assyriens (selon les petites tables cappadociennes). C'est, entre autres, le motif pour lequel nous avons choisi ce thème pour notre conférence. Par ailleurs, le concept de liberté économique illimitée des cocontractants est aussi très ancien. En pleine Époque classique romaine, période au cours de laquelle Ovidius Publius Naso a d'ailleurs vécu, le droit privé a été enrichi par le principe de l'autonomie de la volonté dans le cadre des rapports contractuels. C'est un principe qui jouait le rôle libérateur des énergies de la vie du contrat, trop limitées par les rigueurs excessives du formalisme ancien. En contrepoids au principe de l'autonomie de la volonté, l'intérêt social (et, par conséquence, la cause sociale du contrat) a connu une naissance tardive au Moyen Age. C'était grâce aux préoccupations sociales que la Chrétienté s'était rapprochée, par son Église (au niveau des confusions mêmes) des besoins de tous les gens, de tous les pauvres. Autrement dit, elle s'était confondue avec les nécessités générales, pas seulement avec celles des " majoritaires ". De cette manière est né le " droit de la concurrence ", comme un " droit " du consommateur avant la lettre, une branche de droit qui relativise la force de la ainsi nommée : "main invisible du marché" (Adam Smith). Aussi, le droit de la concurrence a la vertu suprême de pacifier la société et les rapports entre les États qui le reconnaissent (comme, exempli gratia, dans l'Union européenne), du moins dans le périmètre du domaine essentiel du commerce. The Law has been created, in Ovidien spirit, for limitation the power of the most powerful. The idea of having certain laws in order to achieve a good arbitrage in the frame of competition or even in the frame of the fight between different economic actors is a very old one. The power is the main reason for the laws. Ovidius Publius Naso has been expressed this in a poetically manner thousand years ago. A very long time ago, before him, the Hittites, the Assyrians (conforming to the Cappadociennes tins) expressed the same conceptions. This is one of the reasons we have been chosen this topic for our article. The concept of limitless economical power of the co-contractors is also very old. When Ovidius Publius Naso has been living, at the height of Roman classical period, the Private Law has been enriched by the autonomy of will principle. This principle has had the role of releasing the energies of the contracts' life that was too limitated by the excessive rigors of the ancient formalism. Unlike the autonomy of will principle, the social interest (and consequently, the social cause of the contract) has been a tardy birth in the Middle Age. This was thanks to the social concern of Christianity and the Churches (even at the level of confusion) for all the people, for all the poor people. In other words, it was confused with the general needs, not only with those of the "majority ". In this way, the Competition Law is born like a " Law of the consumer " avant la lettre, as law branch that shows the relativity of the force of so-called " invisible hand of the market " (Adam Smith). At the same time, the Competition Law has the supreme virtue of pacifying the society and the relationships between the States who are recognizing it (like e.g. the European Union) at least in the frame of the essential area of commerce.

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    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 167.

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    Length: 06 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2007
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII,Novembre 2007
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:167
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