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Estimación y análisis de la elasticidad precio de la demanda para diferentes tipos de bebidas en México
[Estimation and analysis of price elasticity of demand to different kind of beverage in Mexico]

  • Fuentes, Hugo Javier
  • Zamudio, Andrés
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    Abstract (english) The purpose for the present work is to show how the use of the National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares, ENIGH), to make cross sectional data estimations, can deliver contradictory conclusions, depending on the assumptions made for the product being analyzed. To develop this exercise, we consider individually three types of products: water, bottled juices and soft drinks. The results show that assuming each one of these products as homogeneous, regardless of the size with which they are commercialized, delivers important differences on the result of the elasticity being calculated when compared to the case on which each on of the products is categorized based on the size. The estimation shows that when products on their various sizes are considered as homogeneous, the estimates elasticity is sensibly higher as compared to the case where heterogeneity of the products is allowed based on their sizes. The most outstanding case is for soft drinks, where elasticity has an absolute value higher than one when we analyze the homogeneous case, so it would be considered an elastic good. However the result is radically different when soft drinks are classified based on the size of their package. We observe that each type of soft drink represents an inelastic good, meaning that the change on consumption is of lower proportion than the change on price. Abstract (español) El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar cómo la utilización de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares, ENIGH, bajo un estimación de corte transversal, puede dar resultados radicalmente contradictorios, a raíz de los supuestos que se hagan en torno al producto en cuestión. Para realizar este ejercicio se consideró el caso del agua, jugos envasados y refrescos en forma separada. Los resultados muestran que suponer estos tres productos como homogéneos, independiente de la presentación por tamaño que se maneje en su comercialización, o en su caso heterogéneos, considerando ésta para clasificarlo, trae consigo serias repercusiones en las elasticidades calculadas. Las estimaciones muestran que al considerar a cada uno de estos productos como homogéneos, las elasticidades son sensiblemente mayores en comparación al caso en que se les califica como un producto heterogéneo. El caso más representativo es el de los refrescos, donde la elasticidad es mayor a uno en términos absolutos cuando se evalúa como homogéneo; es decir, se consideraría un bien elástico. Un resultado muy distinto se obtiene si se clasifica el refresco por tipo de presentación vía el tamaño. En concreto, se aprecia que los refrescos por presentación son inelásticos; es decir, el cambio en el consumo en términos proporcionales es menor a la variación del precio.

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    Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 50603.

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    Date of creation: 30 Sep 2013
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    Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:50603
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    1. Jorge N. Valero Gil, 2006. "Estimación de elasticidades e impuestos óptimos a los bienes más consumidos en México," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 21(2), pages 127-176.
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