IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Eight Hundred Years of Financial Folly


  • Reinhart, Carmen


The economics profession has an unfortunate tendency to view recent experience in the narrow window provided by standard datasets. With a few notable exceptions, cross-country empirical studies on financial crises typically begin in 1980 and are limited in other important respects. Yet an event that is rare in a three decade span may not be all that rare when placed in a broader context. In my paper with Kenneth Rogoff we introduce a comprehensive new historical database for studying debt and banking crises, inflation, currency crashes and debasements. The data covers sixty-six countries in across all regions. The range of variables encompasses external and domestic debt, trade, GNP, inflation, exchange rates, interest rates, and commodity prices. The coverage spans eight centuries, going back to the date of independence or well into the colonial period for some countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Reinhart, Carmen, 2008. "Eight Hundred Years of Financial Folly," MPRA Paper 11864, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:11864

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "The Aftermath of Financial Crises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 466-472, May.
    2. Calvo, Guillermo A. & Izquierdo, Alejandro & Loo-Kung, Rudy, 2006. "Relative price volatility under Sudden Stops: The relevance of balance sheet effects," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 231-254, June.
    3. Reinhart, Carmen, 2008. "Eight Hundred Years of Financial Folly," MPRA Paper 11864, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "An Introduction," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(2), pages 149-150, August.
    5. Reinhart, Karmen & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2009. ""This time is different": panorama of eight centuries of financial crises," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 1, pages 77-114, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Francisco, Ruth & Wan, Guanghua, 2009. "How is the Global Recession Impacting on Poverty and Social Spending? An ex ante assessment methodology with applications to developing Asia," MPRA Paper 18885, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Felton, Andrew & Reinhart, Carmen M. (ed.), 2009. "The First Global Financial Crisis of the 21st Century Part II: June–December, 2008," Vox eBooks, Centre for Economic Policy Research, number p199.
    3. Shaukat, Mughees & Mirakhor, Abbas & Krichene, Noureddine, 2013. "Fragility Of Interest-Based Debt Financing: Is It Worth Sustaining A Regime Uncertainty?," MPRA Paper 56362, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Reinhart, Carmen, 2008. "Reflections on the International Dimensions and Policy Lessons of the U.S. Subprime Crisis," MPRA Paper 11863, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Schlenkhoff, Georg, 2009. "Can Great Depression Theories Explain the Great Recession?," MPRA Paper 19781, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Joseph W. Gruber & Filippo di Mauro & Bernd Schnatz & Nico Zorell, 2011. "Where are global and U.S. trade heading in the aftermath of the trade collapse: issues and alternative scenarios," International Finance Discussion Papers 1017, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    7. Chollete, Lorán & de la Peña, Victor & Lu, Ching-Chih, 2012. "International diversification: An extreme value approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 871-885.
    8. Galin Todorov & Prasad Bidarkota, 2013. "On international financial spillovers to frontier markets," International Journal of Economics and Business Research, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(4), pages 433-452.
    9. Chollete, Loran & Pena, Victor de la & Lu, Ching-Chih, 2009. "International Diversification: A Copula Approach," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2009/27, University of Stavanger.
    10. Irina Balteanu & Aitor Erce, 2017. "Linking Bank Crises and Sovereign Defaults: Evidence from Emerging Markets," Working Papers 22, European Stability Mechanism.
    11. Purificación Parrado-Martínez & Antonio Partal-Ureña & Pilar Gómez Fernández-Aguado, 2016. "Banking Soundness Indicators and Sovereign Risk in Time of Crisis: The Case of the European Union," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(8), pages 1172-1193, August.
    12. Chris Hunt, 2009. "Banking crises in New Zealand - an historical perspective," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 72, pages 26-41, December.
    13. Reboredo, Juan C., 2012. "Modelling oil price and exchange rate co-movements," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 419-440.
    14. Chollete, Loran & Ning, Cathy, 2009. "The Dependence Structure of Macroeconomic Variables in the US," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2009/31, University of Stavanger.
    15. Balteanu, Irina & Erce, Aitor, 2014. "Bank crises and sovereign defaults in emerging markets: exploring the links," Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper 184, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    16. Chollete, Loran & Jaffee, Dwight, 2009. "Economic Implications of Extreme and Rare Events," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2009/32, University of Stavanger.
    17. Irina Balteanu & Aitor Erce, 2014. "Banking crises and sovereign defaults in emerging markets: exploring the links," Working Papers 1414, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    18. Chollete, Lorán & de la Peña, Victor & Lu, Ching-Chih, 2011. "International diversification: A copula approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 403-417, February.
    19. Davide Furceri & Annabelle Mourougane, 2010. "The Effects of Fiscal Policy on Output: A DSGE Analysis," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 770, OECD Publishing.

    More about this item


    Financial crises; inflation; default;

    JEL classification:

    • E0 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:11864. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.