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Monitoring and Evaluation for Adaptation: Lessons from Development Co-operation Agencies


  • Nicolina Lamhauge


  • Elisa Lanzi


  • Shardul Agrawala



In the context of scaled up funding for climate change adaptation, it is more important than ever to ensure the effectiveness, equity and efficiency of adaptation interventions. Robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of this, both to ensure that the prospective benefits of interventions are being realised and to help improve the design of future interventions. This paper is the first empirical assessment of M&E frameworks used by development co-operation agencies for projects and programmes with adaptation-specific or adaptation-related components. It has analysed 106 project documents across six bilateral development agencies. Based on this, it identifies the characteristics of M&E for adaptation and shares lessons learned on the choice and use of indicators for adaptation. This analysis has found that Result Based Management, the Logical Framework Approach and the accompanying logframe are the most common M&E approaches used for adaptation. In applying these approaches, the long-term perspective of most adaptation initiatives means that it is particularly important to clearly differentiate between outcomes, outputs and activities. In addition, M&E frameworks for adaptation should combine qualitative, quantitative and binary indicators. The baselines for these indicators should include the effects of future climate change, particularly for projects with long-term implications, such as investments in infrastructure. Significant challenges remain in relation to dealing with shifting baselines, attribution and time lags between interventions and outcomes. De plus en plus de fonds étant alloués à l’adaptation au changement climatique, il est plus que jamais capital de veiller à l’efficacité, à l’équité et à l’efficience des actions menées dans ce cadre. Un système de suivi et d’évaluation rigoureux s’impose, à la fois pour garantir que les avantages attendus de ces actions se concrétiseront et pour mieux préparer les actions à mener dans l’avenir. Le présent document est la première étude empirique des cadres de suivi et d’évaluation appliqués par les agences de coopération pour le développement à des projets et des programmes portant intégralement ou partiellement sur l’adaptation. Cent-six documents de projets de six agences bilatérales de développement ont été analysés. Cela a permis d’identifier les caractéristiques des systèmes de suivi et d’évaluation appliqués à l’adaptation et d’en tirer des enseignements concernant le choix des indicateurs et leur utilisation. D’après cette analyse, les deux approches de suivi et d’évaluation les plus employées sont en l’occurrence la gestion axée sur les résultats et la méthode du cadre logique et la matrice qui s’y rapporte. La plupart des initiatives d’adaptation s’inscrivant dans le long terme, il est particulièrement important de bien différencier les résultats, les produits et les activités lorsque l’on applique ces approches. En outre, les systèmes de suivi et d’évaluation appliqués à l’adaptation doivent associer des indicateurs qualitatifs, quantitatifs et binaires. Pour ces indicateurs, les références doivent intégrer les effets des changements climatiques futurs, notamment dans le cas des projets qui ont des implications à long terme (investissements dans les infrastructures, par exemple). La prise en charge des variations des références, de l’attribution des résultats et des décalages temporels entre actions et résultats pose encore des problèmes importants.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicolina Lamhauge & Elisa Lanzi & Shardul Agrawala, 2012. "Monitoring and Evaluation for Adaptation: Lessons from Development Co-operation Agencies," OECD Environment Working Papers 38, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:envaaa:38-en

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Francesco Bosello, 2010. "Adaptation, Mitigation and “Green” R&D to Combat Global Climate Change. Insights From an Empirical Integrated Assessment Exercise," Working Papers 2010.22, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    2. de Bruin, Kelly Chloe, 2011. "Distinguishing Between Proactive (Stock) and Reactive (Flow) Adaptation," CERE Working Papers 2011:8, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    3. Enrica De Cian & Elisa Lanzi & Roberto Roson, 2007. "The Impact of Temperature Change on Energy Demand: A Dynamic Panel Analysis," Working Papers 2007.46, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Andrea Bigano & Francesco Bosello & Giuseppe Marano, 2006. "Energy Demand and Temperature: A Dynamic Panel Analysis," Working Papers 2006.112, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    5. Enrica De Cian & Valentina Bosetti & Alessandra Sgobbi & Massimo Tavoni, 2009. "The 2008 WITCH Model: New Model Features and Baseline," Working Papers 2009.85, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    6. William R. Cline, 1992. "Economics of Global Warming, The," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 39.
    7. Valentina Bosetti & Emanuele Massetti & Massimo Tavoni, 2007. "The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions," Working Papers 2007.10, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
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    Cited by:

    1. Oberlack, Christoph & Eisenack, Klaus, 2012. "Overcoming barriers to urban adaptation through international cooperation? Modes and design properties under the UNFCCC," The Constitutional Economics Network Working Papers 03-2012, University of Freiburg, Department of Economic Policy and Constitutional Economic Theory.
    2. Alexandra Lesnikowski & James Ford & Lea Berrang-Ford & Magda Barrera & Jody Heymann, 2015. "How are we adapting to climate change? A global assessment," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 277-293, February.

    More about this item


    adaptation au changement climatique; climate change adaptation; coopération pour le développement; development co-operation; monitoring and evaluation; suivi et évaluation;

    JEL classification:

    • H43 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate
    • O22 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Project Analysis
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

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