IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/oec/elsaab/86-en.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Pension Reform in Chile Revisited: What Has Been Learned?

Author

Listed:
  • Augusto Iglesias-Palau

Abstract

The paper describes Chile’s pension reform of 1980, which replaced the existing pay-as-you-go public pension programs by a new funded pension program managed by private companies (the “AFP´s”). It comments on the main results of this reform so far, and identifies the current challenges faced by the country’s pension system. The paper also describes the changes introduced to Chile’s pension system in March 2008 and assesses their potential impact. The Chilean case shows that parametric reforms preceding the creation of a funded program can reduce political resistance to structural pension reform. Chile’s experience also suggests that the consistency of opinions among the economic, social security and labor market authorities responsible of designing and conducting a pension reform process can help to sell the reform to the political authorities. If the decision is to replace an existing pension program by a new one, it also seems necessary to have specific rules that, in some particular circumstances and for a limited period of time, allow discontented workers to go back to their former pension program. Chile’s experience also shows that the quality of pension programs micro design is relevant since individual decisions and portfolio managers investments decisions are shaped by regulations. Results so far suggests that the reform has been successful in improving the long term sustainability of Chile’s pension system; in creating a more fair system; in promoting the development of capital markets; and in removing some distortions to the operation of labor markets. On the other side, there is some room for the new program operational costs and prices to go down, and expectations about an increase in second pillar coverage have not been met. While some regulatory changes could improve the extent and quality of the funded pension program coverage, the long-term solution to the economic problems of retirement involves the labor market. To improve future pensions more jobs in the formal sector of the economy should be created; unemployment must be reduced; and working lives should be extended. Le document décrit la réforme chilienne des pensions, qui a remplacé en 1980 les programmes publics de retraite par répartition par un système financé par capitalisation, géré par des entreprises privées (les “AFP”). Il commente les principaux résultats de cette réforme et recense les défis auxquels est actuellement confronté le nouveau régime. Le document décrit aussi les modifications qui y ont été apportées en mars 2008 et en évalue l’impact potentiel. Le cas chilien montre que les réformes paramétriques, qui avaient précédé la mise en place d’un système financé par capitalisation, peuvent atténuer les résistances politiques à une réforme structurelle des retraites. L’expérience du Chili donne aussi à penser que la cohérence des avis formulés par les autorités responsables de la politique économique, de la sécurité sociale et des marchés du travail, chargées de concevoir et de conduire le processus de réforme des retraites, peuvent aider à « vendre » la réforme aux autorités politiques. Lorsque l’on prend la décision de remplacer un régime de retraite par un autre, il semble également nécessaire de définir des règles spécifiques autorisant, dans certaines circonstances particulières et pendant une période limitée, les travailleurs mécontents à se réaffilier à leur régime de retraite antérieur. L’expérience du Chili montre aussi qu’il importe de veiller attentivement à la qualité de la conception des dispositions détaillées du système, car les décisions des particuliers et des gestionnaires des investissements de portefeuilles dépendent du cadre réglementaire mis en place. Les résultats observés jusqu’ ici laissent penser que la réforme a permis d’améliorer la viabilité à long terme du système chilien des retraites, d’instaurer un système plus équitable, de promouvoir le développement des marchés financiers et d’éliminer certains facteurs de distorsion du fonctionnement des marchés du travail. Par contre, il y existe une certaine marge de manoeuvre pour abaisser les coûts de fonctionnement du nouveau régime et les coûts d’affiliation. Les attentes quant à une extension de la couverture du second pilier ne se sont pas concrétisées. Si certaines modifications d’ordre réglementaire sont de nature à améliorer l’étendue et la qualité de la couverture du régime de pension capitalisé, à longterme la solution aux problèmes de financement des retraites est liée à la situation du marché du travail. Pour améliorer les retraites futures, il faudrait créer des emplois plus nombreux dans le secteur formel de l’économie, réduire le chômage et allonger la durée de la vie active.

Suggested Citation

  • Augusto Iglesias-Palau, 2009. "Pension Reform in Chile Revisited: What Has Been Learned?," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 86, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:elsaab:86-en
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/224473276417
    Download Restriction: no

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Markus Leibrecht & Joelle H. Fiong, 2017. "Economic Crises and Globalisation as Drivers of Pension Privatisation: an Empirical Analysis," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2017-05, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    2. Fabio Bertranou & Esteban Calvo & Evelina Bertranou, 2009. "Is Latin America Retreating From Individual Retirement Accounts?," Issues in Brief ib2009-9-14, Center for Retirement Research, revised Jul 2009.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oec:elsaab:86-en. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/eloecfr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.