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Making Colombia's Tax Policy More Efficient, Fair and Green

Author

Listed:
  • Christian Daude

    (OECD)

  • Sarah Perret

    (OECD)

  • Bert Brys

Abstract

Tax revenues at 20% of GDP remain low compared to other Latin American countries and the OECD average and tax evasion is pervasive. Lower oil revenues and the expiration of a number of taxes are putting strains on the budget at a time when social and development spending needs are rising. Heavy reliance on corporate income taxes reduces investment. At the same time, the redistributive impact of taxation is reduced because most of income and wealth taxes are paid by firms rather than households. Therefore, Colombia needs a comprehensive tax reform that boosts revenues and shifts the tax burden to support more inclusive and green growth. Tax loopholes and exemptions that reduce the tax base and favour mainly the rich should be reduced significantly. Strengthening the tax administration will help reduce evasion. This Working Paper relates to the 2014 OECD Economic Survey of Colombia. (www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/economic-survey-colombia.htm) Axer davantage les politiques fiscales sur l'efficacité, l'équité et l'écologie Les recettes fiscales de la Colombie, qui s’élèvent à 20% du PIB, sont faibles en comparaison d'autres pays d'Amérique latine ou de la moyenne de l'OCDE, et la fraude fiscale est généralisée dans le pays. La baisse des recettes pétrolières et la suppression d’un certain nombre d’impôts et de taxes exercent une pression budgétaire alors même que les besoins de financement des mesures de développement et de progrès social sont en hausse. Le système fiscal repose largement sur l’impôt sur les bénéfices des sociétés, ce qui décourage l'investissement. En parallèle, les effets redistributifs de la fiscalité sont limités du fait que l’essentiel de la fiscalité sur les revenus et le patrimoine est supporté par les entreprises et non par les ménages. En conséquence, la Colombie doit réformer l’ensemble de sa fiscalité, afin d’augmenter les recettes et de déplacer la charge fiscale pour favoriser une croissance plus inclusive et plus verte. Les nombreuses niches fiscales et exonérations qui réduisent la base imposable et avantagent essentiellement les plus riches devraient être limitées de manière significative. Le renforcement de l'administration de l’impôt permettra de réduire la fraude. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique 2014 de l’OCDE sur la Colombie. (www.oecd.org/fr/eco/etudes/etude-economique-colombie.htm).

Suggested Citation

  • Christian Daude & Sarah Perret & Bert Brys, 2015. "Making Colombia's Tax Policy More Efficient, Fair and Green," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1234, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:1234-en
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5js0cqs9605g-en
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    corporate income tax; fiscalité verte; green taxation; impôt sur le revenu des particuliers; impôt sur le revenu des sociétés; personal income tax; politique fiscale; tax evasion; tax policy; évasion fiscale;

    JEL classification:

    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • H25 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Business Taxes and Subsidies
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance

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