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Hazed and Confused: The Effect of Air Pollution on Dementia


  • Kelly C. Bishop
  • Jonathan D. Ketcham
  • Nicolai V. Kuminoff


We study whether long-term cumulative exposure to airborne small particulate matter (PM₂.₅) affects the probability that an individual receives a new diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias. We track the health, residential location, and PM₂.₅ exposures of Americans aged 65 and above from 2001 through 2013. The expansion of Clean Air Act regulations led to quasi-random variation in individuals’ subsequent exposures to PM₂.₅. We leverage these regulations to construct instrumental variables for individual-level decadal PM₂.₅ that we use within flexible probit models that also account for any potential sample selection based on survival. We find that a 1 μg/m3 increase in decadal PM₂.₅ increases the probability of a new dementia diagnosis by an average of 2.15 percentage points. All else equal, we find larger effects for women, older people, and people with more clinical risk factors for dementia. These effects persist below current regulatory thresholds.

Suggested Citation

  • Kelly C. Bishop & Jonathan D. Ketcham & Nicolai V. Kuminoff, 2018. "Hazed and Confused: The Effect of Air Pollution on Dementia," NBER Working Papers 24970, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:24970
    Note: AG EEE EH

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    JEL classification:

    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling

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